(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Grants recognition program : the National Endowment for the Arts"

'*'A •» 



I 



. • * <ft ' 







Mi 






•i. i 



AM 



V,4^ 



* * A'lStt i •J 


















u I. i- ' ... *- 



■3K. 



4>* 



m 



'i- ■ ^ ':k 



l» .'.* 



ii^^^ 








I 



'. * #.!♦ 



Design Arts 



Grants ^ 

Recognition Program ' 



The 

National Endowment 

for the Arts 



^ 



iSSa*iv::ii 



% 

1 







■ 



>-;j"= 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/grantsrecognitioOObrow 



Design Arts 1 Grants 

Recognition Program 

The 

National Endowment 

for the Arts 



A magazine encompassing: Supported by the Volume 1/August 1980 

architecture, landscape architecture, National Endowment for the Arts 

urban design and planning, 
interior design, industrial design, 
graphic design, fashion design. 



Copyright © 1980 by The Cooper 
Union for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence and Art. All rights reserved. 
Printed in the United States of 
America. 



Published by The Cooper Union for 
the Advancement of Science and 
Art, 41 Cooper Square, New York, 
New York 10003. Editorial and 
design services for this publication 
have been provided by the Center 
for Design and Typography, a 
research, professional education, and 
public service facility of The Cooper 
Union School of Art in cooperation 
with the Mergenthaler Group of 
Companies. The Center for Design 
and Typography is indeed grateful 
to all these individuals who care 
about design and its advancement 
throughout our nation. The Center 
wishes, as w ell, to express its appre- 
ciation to the National Endowment 
for the Arts for the generous support 
of this project. 



Editor: 

Lance Jay Brown 

Managing Eklitor: 

Carol Uhl-Nordlinger, Carnegie 

Visiting Professor, The Cooper 

Union School of Art 

Associate Editor for the Design 

Arts Program: 

Geraldine Bachman 

Assistant Exditor: 

.Mary Beth Zickefoose 

Contributing Writers: 

.\lar\' Bruton, Linda Coe, 

Christopher Davis, Paula Galbraith, 

Jane Robbins, Mila Tewell 



Design: 

Rudolph de Harak, 

Professor of Design, The Cooper 

Union School of .\rt; and 

Richard Drake 

Printing: 

Rapoport Printing Corp., New York 



Foreword 



Editor's Preface 



The legislation that led to the crea- 
tion of the National Endowment for 
the Arts contains the vision of a firm 
commitment by the federal govern- 
ment to the fundamental value of the 
arts and the tremendous impact they 
can have on the quality of life for 
everyone. Our goal is to help create 
and sustain a climate in which 
the arts can flourish; and to do 
this through a system of support 
designed to integrate the arts into the 
agendas, concerns, and priorities of 
the private sector and state and local 
governments. 

That legislation was adopted more 
than fifteen years ago. Since then, 
the growth of the arts in this country 
has been phenomenal. In all of the 
arts disciplines the Endowment has 
acted as a catalyst, a spark to show 
the potential of the arts and an incen- 
tive to draw private investment. 
Some of our most dramatic and 
exciting success stories have been in 
the design arts — architecture, land- 
scape architecture, urban design and 
planning; industrial, graphic, inte- 
rior, and fashion design. Over the 



past thirteen years, through more 
than t\\ o thousand grants, the 
Endow ment has in\ ested more than 
$23 million in good design: this 
publication — like a report to share- 
holders — highlights some of the divi- 
dends. It is one of the most signifi- 
cant initiatives undertaken by 
Design Arts Program Director 
Michael Pittas. 

Design serves an important dual role 
in creating and sustaining this "cli- 
mate in which the arts can flourish." 
How we plan, adapt, or reuse our 
environment not only provides the 
setting and stage for that flourishing 
but also makes one of the most per- 
vasive statements of our aesthetic 
values. Design is everv'whcre. In 
expression and in physical reality, 
design is that climate. 

But there is more to it than that. The 
partnerships engendered by these 
grants — the spirit of unity they rep- 
resent—are the most important 
results. I'hey point the w ay to the 
future of funding for all the arts. 



More than one hundred years ago, 
the German philosopher von Schel- 
ling likened architecture to "frozen 
music." It is my hope that this publi- 
cation w ill help people get a better 
sense of the harmonies, forms, 
motives, and even discords at work 
in our built environment; how they 
can be changed, and are being 
changed, and at how fast and urgent 
a tempo. 

Livingston L. Biddle, Jr. 

Chairman 

National Endowment for the Arts 



Volume 1, Number 1. The introduc- 
tion of a new publication is an excit- 
ing moment. 

Design Arts. A masthead, but more. 
.\n idea for broadening and deepen- 
ing the professional and public 
understanding of all the design 
arts — architecture, landscape archi- 
tecture, urban design and planning, 
interior design, industrial design, 
graphic design, fashion design — and 
how those arts relate to one another 
and are useful to society. Our inten- 
tion: to inform vou of the activities 
and accomplishments in the design 
arts by individual professionals, and 
public and private organizations. 

Eor the past fifteen years, the design 
arts in the United States have been 
nurtured w ith little fanfare but to 
grow ing effect bv the National 
Endow ment for the Arts, w ithin its 
Design Arts Program. VVe thought it 
fitting, therefore, to inaugurate 
Design Arts with a retrospective of 
the accomplishments achieved in 
those arts by the recipients of Arts 
Endowment grants during those fif- 
teen years. To compile this first 



8 



issue, the Endowment asked the 
more than 2,000 grants recipients to 
submit the results of their work. The 
response was extensive. A panel of 
twelve design arts professionals 
reviewed the submissions, recom- 
mending more than 150 for publica- 
tion as \\ ork that should be made 
known and available to other profes- 
sionals and to the public. The 
Endowment is encouraging the con- 
tinued and additional submission of 
completed \v ork for future review 
and publication. 

What has resulted from the panel's 
findings is a compendium of work, 
much of it previously unpublished 
and heretofore unknou n. The work 
has been grouped into four sections: 
Public Fxlucation and Awareness; 
Urban Quality and the .Arts; Profes- 
sional Research; Heritage, Conserva- 
tion, and Planning. Perhaps most 
exciting within these sections is the 
work that addresses special constitu- 
encies: children, the handicapped, 
the elderly. Toward facilitating the 
use of this compendium as a refer- 
ence, we have included an index. 



William Marlin, architecture critic 
for the Christian Science Monitor and 
former editor of Architectural Record, 
has written an introductory article 
that conveys an enthusiasm for our 
built environment tempered by a 
serious view tow ard the future that 
sets the tone for this issue. \ chrono- 
logical perspective is given to the 
grants presented herein by the clos- 
ing interview with the Endow ment's 
past and present Design .\rts Pro- 
gram directors, whose personalities 
and program goals shaped this work. 

In compiling our first issue of 
Design Arts as a retrospective of work 
undertaken in the design arts with 
the aid of grants from the Arts 
Endow ment, we have found the 
offerings rich and varied. We hope 
you will find them useful as well. 
Future issues oi Design Arts w ill be 
topic oriented; all w ill be focused to 
cut across the individual professional 
design disciplines and to address 
both the professional and the inter- 
ested public. One issue each year 
will recognize outstanding Arts 
Endowment funded grants. 



Design Arts is the inspiration of Arts 
Endowment Design .\rts Program 
director Michael John Pittas, as part 
of his ongoing quest to find ways to 
increase the lay and professional 
public's awareness of and informa- 
tion about the design arts. 

To acknowledge by name all of the persons 
whose work contributed to the success of 
the grants we have published would fill 
another entire issue. We regret that we 
are able to acknowledge by name only 
those persons and organizations to whom 
grants were given or who participated 
directly in a professional capacity . The 
constraints of space have required us to 
exclude, either by name or reference, vol- 
unteers and additional funding sources 
and sponsoring groups. We hope that 
those readers desiring additional informa- 
tion will contact the grantees directly . 
An alphabetical listing of each grantee 
whose work is published has been provided 
at the back of this issue. 

We are grateful for the Herculean efforts 
of Partners for Livable Places, especially 
their president , Robert McNulty, and 
associate director, Dorijdcobson, in solic- 



iting and compiling the work of past Arts 
Endowment grantees and for organizing 
the panel reviews. 

We wish to thank, as well, our guest pub- 
lisher, the Cooper Union for the 
Advancement of Science and Art, and 
especially the Dean of the Art School, 
George Sadek,for making this publica- 
tion a reality. 

Carol Uhl-Nordlinger 



Contents 



Frontispiece 



Grants Recognized 1965 — 1980 Public Education and Awareness 



Section of an Opera House, circa 1850. 
Richard Morris Hunt , architect. 
Photography by John Tennant. Prints 
and Drawings Collection, The AIA 
Foundation. 



8 Foreword 

8 Editor's Preface 

16 On the Recurring Evidence 
That Livable Cities (and 
Towns, and Countrysides) 
Exist 
William Marlin 



20 



Introduction 
Rai Okamoto 



24 Overviev\ 

Robert McNulty 

Increasing Public Awareness 

26 Learning from Las \'egas 
American Institute of 
Architects Foundation 

27 Richard Morris Hunt 
American Institute of 
Architects Foundation 

28 Two Hundred Years of Amer- 
ican Architectural Drawing 
Architectural League of 

New York 

29 On Site 

Sculpture in the Environment 
(SITE) 

30 Women in American 
Architecture 
Architectural League of 
New York 

32 The Work of Julia Morgan 

Sara Holmes Boutelle 
3 3 The Great Camps of the 

Adirondacks 

Harvey Kaiser 
34 Shaker Heritage in Kentucky 

Susan Jackson Keig 



10 



34 The Milltown: A Sense of 

Place, a Way of Life 

Randolph Langenbach 
36 Working Places 

Society for Industrial 

Archeology 

36 Building Book for Lewiston, 
Maine 

City of Lewiston 

37 Seed Grants 

America the Beautiful Fund 
3 8 Main Street 

National Trust for Historic 
Preservation 

39 Celebrations in City Places 
Marilyn Wood and the Celebra- 
tions Group 

40 Design Michigan 
Cranbrook Academy of Art 

41 A Graphics System for 
Greenway 

Platte River Greenway 
Foundation 

41 Boston 200 Discovery 
Network 

Boston 200 

42 Footnotes 

Institute for Environmental 
Action 



42 More Streets for People 
Institute for Environmental 
Action 

43 Social Life of Small Urban 
Spaces 

National Recreation and Park 
Association 

44 Reusing Railroad Stations 
Educational Facilities Laborato- 
ries/ Academy for Educational 
Development 

45 Recycling Streets 
Jack Sidener 

45 Courthouse Conservation 
National Trust for Historic 
Preservation 

46 A Measure of Change 
Vision, Inc. 

47 Street Smart 
Vision, Inc. 

47 Five New England Towns 
Vision, Inc. 

48 Risorgimento 
City of Jersey City 

48 Neighborhood Conservation 
Nationwide 

National Trust for Historic 
Preservation 



49 Revitalizing Worcester 
Worcester (Massachusetts) Heri- 
tage Preservation Society 

Educational Programs 

50 Mid-Career Fellow ships 
American Academy in Rome 

5 1 Career Discovery Program 
Harvard University 

5 1 An Institute for Environmen- 
tal Education 

University of New Mexico 

52 Curriculum for Historic 
Preservation 
University of Vermont 

52 Space: Inside/Outside 
Spencer Museum of Art 

53 Kids-Only Architecture 
Nancy Renfro 

54 A Building Education System 
Center for City Building Educa- 
tional Programs 

55 Architects-in-Schools 
Educational Futures, Inc. 

55 Participatory Design 
Educational Futures, Inc. 



56 Environmental Community 

Problems 

Environmental Intern 

Program/Northeast 
56 Environmental Experience 

Stipends 

Association of Collegiate Schools of 

Architecture, Inc. 



11 



Contents 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



58 Overview 

Bernard Spring 

Cultural Facilities, Artists' 
Housing 

60 Design Charrette for 
Provincetovvn 

Provincetown Playhouse on the 
Wharf, Inc. 

61 Renovating a Movie House 
Indiana Repertory Theatre 

62 Artists' Housing in San 
Francisco 

The Goodman Group, Inc. 

63 A Children's Museum 
Children s Museum of Rhode 
Island 

64 Harlem Institute of Fashion's 
Museum 

Harlem Institute of Fashion 
64 A National Museum of the 

Building Arts 

Committee for a National 

Museum of the Building Arts 
66 West Michigan's Landmark 

for Art 

Grand Rapids Art Museum 



66 Arts Park in Los Angeles 76 

San Fernando Valley Arts 
Council 

68 Snug Harbor 76 
Snug Harbor Cultural Center, 

Inc. 78 

69 An Art Center for Dayton 

City of Dayton, Ohio 79 

70 Artist Living/W orking Space 
Minneapolis Arts Commission 

70 A Cultural Center at Boott 

Mill 80 

Human Services Corporation 

71 A Museum Evokes 

Railroad and Pioneer 80 

Museum, Inc. 

Livable Cities 82 

72 Gritty Cities 

William Matuszeski 82 

73 20th Century Transportation 
and (]ivic Design for an 18th 
Ontury (]ity 

District of Columbia Municipal 83 

Planning Offwe 

74 Visible Streets 

Municipal Art Society of New 84 

York 



Adopt-A-Station 

Municipal Art Society of New 

York 

Billboards as Roadway Art 

City of Philadelphia 

Alleys: A Hidden Resource 

City of Louisville 

A .Movable Park 

Environmental Education, Inc./ 

Tampa Community Design 

Center, Inc. 

1 % for Art in Civic 

Architecture 

Maryland Arts Council 

Art in Cambridge Parks 

Cambridge (Massachusetts) Arts 

Council 

Improving New York's 

Restaurant Row 

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 

Revitalizing New York 

Communities 

New York Department of City 

Planning 

Redesigning Manitou Springs 

City of Manitou Springs, 

Colorado 

An Unbuilt Freew av 

University of Wisconsin 



85 Centre Street Restoration 
City of Femandina Beach, 
Florida 

86 Waterfront Plan for Eastport, 
Maine 

City of Eastport 

86 Revitalizing Crown Hill 
Worcester (Massachusetts) Cooper- 
ation Council, Inc. 

87 City Scale Grant Program 
City-County Planning Board, 
City of Winston-Salem 



12 



Professional Research 



90 Overview 

Michael Brill 

Architectural History 

94 Comparative Urban Design, 
1830-1843 
Melville C. Branch 

94 Documenting the Architecture 
of the United States 

G. E. Kidder Smith 

95 Prehistoric and Early 
Architecture in the Eastern 
United States 
Jacksonville University 

96 Supermannerism 
C. Ray Smith 

96 Building w ith Frank Lloyd 
\\'right 

Herbert A.Jacobs 

97 Modern Housing Prototypes 
Roger Sherwood 

98 The Art of Engineering 
David P. Billington 

99 Fitting New Buildings w ith 
Old 

Brent C. Brolin 



Design Research 

1 00 Journal of Architectural 
Education 

Association of Collegiate Schools of 
Architecture, Inc. 

101 Structure in Nature Is a Strat- 
egy for Design 

Peter Pearce 

102 F^nergy, Stability, and Form 
Ralph L. Knowles 

103 Symmetry 
William S. Huff 

Design for Special 
Constituencies 

104 Hidden Structure of 
Children's Play 

Stephen Grabow and Neil Salkind 
104 City Information Systems for 
Children 
Michael Southworth 

104 Soft Indoor Play 
Environments 
Dolores M. Pacileo 

105 Access to Play 
Pittsburgh Architects Workshop 

106 Headspace 
James R. Kachik 



106 Access '76 

Easter Seal Society, Worcester, 
Massachusetts 

107 Environments for the Mentally 
Retarded 
Carnegie-Mellon University 

107 A Communication System for 
the Blind 
Alexander Bally 

107 Building Products for the 
Aged 

Joseph A. Koncelik 

Applied Studies 

108 Theme Parks 
Louis Wasserman 

109 Streetscape Equipment Source- 
book 

Center for Design Planning 

109 Film in User Analysis 
Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 

110 The Right to Walk 
Lois G. Jackson 

1 10 Experimental Freeway Mes- 
sage Boards 

Jack Roberts 

111 The Contribution of the Arts 
to the Economic Life of a City 
Urban Innovations Group 



1 1 2 System Ecologic 

Laurence S. and Sherrie S. Cutler 

112 Shelter in the Harsh Land 
Paul G. McHenry,Jr. 

1 1 3 Plants as Environmental 
Indicators 

James S. Kennedy 
1 1 3 Assessing Design Review 

Commissions 

A. Robert Thoresen 
1 1 3 Permits and Preservation 

Felix M. Warburg 



13 



V -ontents 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 

116 Overview 
Rai Okamoto 

Conservation and Restoration 

118 Splendid Survivors 
Foundation for San Francisco's 
Architectural Heritage 

119 A Search for Identity 
Old Town Restorations, Inc. 

1 20 The Strand in Galveston, 
1 exas 

Galveston Historical Foundation, 
Inc. /Galveston County Cultural 
Arts Council, Inc. 

122 A Turn-of-the-Century Main 
Street 

Ogden (Utah) Neighborhood 
Development Agency 

123 Preserving Portland 
Neighborhoods 
Alfred M. Staehli 

123 Recycling Nashville's 
Waterfront 

Robinson Neil Bass and Associates 

1 24 Housemoving 

City of Eugene, Oregon 

125 SNAP 

Savannah Landmark Rehabilita- 
tion Project, Inc. 



125 Improving a Warehouse 
District 

Cleveland Landmarks Commission 

126 Florence, Arizona's Historic 
District 

Town of Florence, Arizona 

126 Design Review in Historic 
Districts 

Alice M. Bowsher 

127 Defining Kdges of Historic 
Districts 

National Trust for Historic 
Preservation 

127 Historic Waterwhcel 
Restoration 

West Bridgewater (Massachusetts) 
Historical Commission 

128 Preservation Planning in Small 
Tow n I listoric Districts 
National Trust for Historic 
Preservation 

1 28 Preservation Planning in 

Upstate and Central New York 
Regional Conference of Historical 
Agencies 

1 30 U.S. Custom House at Bowl- 
ing Cireen 

New York Landmarks 
Conservancy 



1 30 Great Falls Historic District 

City ofPaterson, New Jersey 
1 3 1 Nebraska Capitol and Environs 

University of Nebraska 

Land Use and Planning 

132 Scenic Preservation 

William Liskamm 
132 Broken Serenity 

Rural Communities Institute, 

Western State College 

134 Maine's Land Use Handbook 
Maine Department of Conserva- 
tion, Land Use Regulation Com- 
mission 

135 Observing the \irginia 
Piedmont 

Piedmont Environmental Council 

1 36 Sugarloaf Regional Trails 
Stronghold, Inc./ Sugarloaf 
Regional Trails (Dickerson, 
Maryland) 

137 Cincinnati Hillsides 
Cincinnati Institute 

1 38 Residential Zoning for San 
Francisco 

University of California/ San 
Francisco Department of City 
Planning 



1 38 Suburban Conservation 
America the Beautiful 
Fund/George Washington 
University 

139 North Inglewood Industrial 
Park 

City of Inglewood, California 

Parks and Open Spaces 

140 Backyard Parks 

San Francisco Planning and 
Urban Research 

140 Boston's Urban Wilds 

Fund for Preservation of Wildlife 
and Natural Areas/ Boston Rede- 
velopment Authority 

142 Preserving the New Jersey 
Pine Barrens 
Joyce Haney 

142 .Atlanta Great Park 
Atlanta Great Park Planning, 
Inc. 

143 A Lakefront Park in U illiams 
Bay 

Village of Williams Bay, 
Wisconsin 

144 An Historic Industrial Park 
Hudson-Mohawk Industrial 
Gateway 



14 



145 Cadwalader Park 148 The Grants-Making Years: 154 Reference: Listing of Grantees 
City of Trenton, New Jersey Interviews with Program 

146 1 he Galiagator Linear Park Directors 15 9 Index 
City ofBozeman, Montana Paul Spreiregen 

146 A Park Along the Bronx River Bill N. Lacy 
Bronx River Restoration Michael John Pittas 

147 A Waterfront Park for Grand Lance Jay Brown 
Street 

Parks Council, Inc. 
147 Spring Point Shoreway, 
Maine 
City of South Portland 



15 



On the Recurring Evidence 

That Livable Cities 

(and Towns, and Countrysides) Exist 



William Marlin 



Some years ago, Norton Juster, an 
architect and author, vvrote a hook 
called The Phantom Tollbooth. It 
included a rather chilling conversa- 
tion between two youths, Milo and 
Alec, who were visiting a city: 

There were great crowds ofpeopk rushing 
along with their heads down, and they all 
appeared to know exactly where they were 
going as they darted down the missing 
streets and in and out of the non-existent 
buildings. 

"/ don't see any city" Milo said softly. 

''Neither do they I' Alec answered, ''but it 
hardly matters, for they dont miss it." 

"It must be very difficult to live in a city 
you can't see," Milo insisted. 

"Not at all, once you get used to it" Alec 
said. "But Til explain how it happened. 
Many years ago, on this very spot, there 
was a beautiful city of fine houses and 
inviting spaces, and no one was ever in a 
hurry. The streets were full of wonderful 
things to see, and the people would often 
stop to look at them." 



"Didn't they have any place to go?" asked 
Milo. 

"To be sure" Alec continued, "but, as 
you know, the most important reason for 
going from one place to another is to see 
what's in between, and they took great 
pleasure in doing just that. Then, one 
day, someone discovered that if you 
walked as fast as possible and looked at 
nothing hut your shoes, you would arrive 
at your destination much more quickly. 
Soon, everyone was doing it. They all 
rushed down the avenues and hurried 
along the boulevards, seeing nothing of 
the wonders and beauties of their city as 
they went. No one paid any attention to 
how things looked. And as they moved 
faster and faster, things grew uglier and 
uglier. And as things grew uglier, they 
moved faster. And at last a very strange 
thing began to happen. Because nobody 
cared, the city slowly began to disappear. 
Day by day, the buildings grew fainter; 
and the streets faded away, until it was 
entirely invisible. There was nothing to 
see at all'' 

"What did they do?" 



"Nothing. They went right on living here 
in the houses they could no longer see and 
on the streets which had vanished, because 
nobody had noticed a thing. And that's 
the way they have lived to this day!' 

Milo reflected for a moment, then asked, 
"Hasn't anyone told them?" 

Until about fifteen \ears ago, not 
ver^' many individuals, organizations, 
institutions, or government agencies 
had told them, and "them," as Juster 
clearly intended, is us. 

Looking only at its shoes, pressing 
them hard against the accelerators of 
its cars, our society had allowed its 
communities to become badly 
scuffed. Older center-city neighbor- 
hoods, streets, and retail districts 
were being drained of revenue and 
resolve as the galumphing gas-fed 
sprawl of the suburbs edged farther 
and farther into the countryside. 

As for the countryside, its towns and 
villages were being surrounded, and 
some pulverized altogether, by sub- 
divisions, the frazzle-dazzle of long 



commercial strips running through 
former farm land, and by the canned 
camaraderie of shopping centers. 

So-called renewal programs for the 
center cities had no truck, politi- 
cally, much less conceptuallv, \\ ith 
the idea of restoring and reusing 
older buildings, streets, and districts 
— no truck other than the kind 
in \\ hich the debris of our history 
and humanity was being hauled off. 
America had a housing policy to the 
extent that mortgage assistance \\ as 
directed primarily tow ard suburban- 
ization; it had a land-use policy to 
the extent that highway, freew ay, 
and finally escapew ay construction 
was massively financed. 

America mislaid itself. 

But the harrowing fate of becoming a 
societv' situated between and cen- 
tered on indifferent places w as not to 
be accepted w ithout a defiantly crea- 
tive struggle by many advocates of 
architectural quality, design excel- 
lence, and environmental order. The 
problem was (and remains) to con- 



16 



vince skeptical businessmen, politi- 
cians, and bureaucrats that quality, 
excellence, and order can work to 
better the economic chemistry of 
their communities overall. 

Could Americans have their culture 
and even capitalize upon it? Could 
amenities, properly seeded, pay 
their way and pa\ e the way for eco- 
nomic as well as cultural regenera- 
tion? There had to be proof. Over 
the years, too many well-intentioned 
dreamers had stubbed their Utopias, 
almost as if they too had been walk- 
ing along as fast as possible, looking 
at nothing but their shoes. J. B. Jack- 
son, the cultural historian, has told 
us that good design begins \\ ith 
learning how to arrange your socks 
neatly in the dresser drawer. It is not 
something out the window , or off 
the wall; goocl design fits into the 
fabric of our lives, into what exists 
already, and informs and improves 
from that practical point. 



1 he Concept of Livable Places 

This is the point at which the con- 
cept and connotation of livable cities 
and towns find a place. Futuristic, 
astonishing, horizon-laden schemes 
for cities, looking as though they 
were built all at once a half a centur)' 
or two centuries from now, are best 
left to artful simulators in Holly- 
wood studios. Although architec- 
tural empires, with kings running 
them, have been built on paper in 
the twentieth century, they have 
finally cringed and crumbled before 
the realitv that our physical environ- 
ment has been built in pieces, stages, 
and usually over long periods of 
time. Our cities and tow ns will be 
made efficient and enchanting again 
— be made livable again — only when 
we realize that the smallest house 
and the shortest street are where a 
mature, truly practical culture looks 
for opportunities to restore and re\ i- 
talize itself. Juster's invisible city 
was right in front of everv'body's 
nose, and livable cities are right in 
front of ours. 



The Emergence of Livabilit}' in the 
1970s 

The Design Arts Program of the 
National Endow ment for the Arts, 
that Johnny Appleseed-st^'le federal 
agency founded fifteen years ago, 
has been a key factor in trj'ing to 
help America find itself again. 
Sprinkling its seed-money grants 
across varied urban, suburban, and 
rural terrain, it has yielded bumper 
crops of professional creativity, com- 
munity participation, local invest- 
ment, and a renew ed concern for the 
public realm. In a period like our 
own, w hen there are also bumper 
crops of scarcity — energ\', material 
resources, capital, confidence — the 
Design Arts Program has show n that 
a lot of things, including money, can 
grow on trees, and that they can 
indeed bloom in places where, until 
recently, there appeared to be only 
blight at the end of the tunnel. 

Having directed its grants tow ard 
helping communities restitch their 
seams and edges and survey their 
options, in the mid-1970s, the 
Design .\rts Program had gathered 
plenty of "intelligence" (on a budget 
that it takes to pay the cleaning ladies 



at the CIA) that not only w as a lot of 
latent livabilitv lurking in America's 
cities, towns, and countryside, but 
also a lot of latent boosterism need- 
ing onlv a nudge. 

At the same time, America w as 
receiving its first real w amings about 
energ\'. We needed to get together 
for a serious huddle about how 
energ\' conserx ation should affect 
architectural design. Suddenlv we 
noticed that buildings use more 
energy- than all forms of vehicular 
transportation, so it we were going 
to be serious about the oncoming 
energ\- "crunch," buildings w ere 
going to ha\ e to be a serious policy 
issue. And, of course, our habits of 
spraw 1 and dispersal also had an 
important place on the agenda. 

The preservation mo\ ement, once 
the pleasantly peripheral impulse of 
antiquarians and mansion owners, 
hat! by this time gained great force as 
a practical prod for rcinstilling com- 
munity character. It w as now also 
found that buildings already in place 
are a fomi of cncrgv expenditure 



17 



On the Recurring F'"\ idence 

That Livable Cities 

(and Towns, and Countrysides) Exist 



already in place: built-in conserva- 
tion and built-in boons for contrac- 
tors and laborers as well; for it takes 
quite a few more v\ orkers to restore 
and reuse an existing building than it 
does to build a new one of the same 
size. 

The interest in preservation, w hich 
is now (it is safe to say) close to 
becoming a working ethic in this 
country, coalesced with an architect- 
staged revival of the stylistic, formal 
lessons of architectural historv'. 
Architects are even beginning to pay 
serious attention to relationships of 
scale, bulk, coloration, and texture 
between brand-new buildings and 
their older neighbors. According to 
this new breed, the "infillers," the 
best new buildings will stand in, not 
out; according to the students of his- 
tor)^", the buildings' stylistic elements 
send out murmurs of courtship to 
older neighbors. The detritus of his- 
tory, as well as the physical environ- 
ment, is being sifted for every possi- 
ble particle of genuine cultural and 
humanistic ore. 



These movements of the 1970s seem 
to recall something P rank Lloyd 
Wright said forty years ago: "Exag- 
geration is not greatness, nor any- 
thing like it. lime w as w hen it was 
one of the w onders of the world v\ith 
us. ..It does seem as if the great sim- 
plicities may get a break." Wright 
w as not speaking to the style of 
America's buildings; he was speak- 
ing to the scale, focus, and expres- 
sive purpose of America's social and 
economic values, years before events 
w ould force us to give "the great sim- 
plicities" a break. 

In 1977, the Livable Cities grants 
program w as launched by the 
Endowment. One hundred and fiftv 
projects out of over a thousand appli- 
cations received funds, totalling over 
$2 million. The economic resonance 
of these projects proved that there is 
a place in government programs for 
the small amounts of money that can 
help localities define, refine, and 
then build upon their immediate, 
specific concerns through local ini- 
tiative and investment. 



For example, in Milwaukee, 145 
acres in the middle of the city had 
been cleared for a freew ay, lea\ ing a 
six-mile-long seam between the 
cleared land and surrounding neigh- 
borho(xis. Ihe Park \\ est Redevel- 
opment Task Force, enlisting the 
insight and skills of the University of 
Wisconsin at .\lilw aukee, developed 
urban design proposals for the area 
in an effort to tie new development 
in with the neighborhoods. I his w as 
not only an investigation of visual 
and architectural alternatives but 
also a serious study of the mix of 
commercial, residential, and other 
uses to which the land could be put. 
Local residents, merchants, and 
public officials w ere much involved; 
the result was, in addition to spirited 
civic discussion, the creation of a 
farmer's market, two public parks, 
and the refinement of the urban 
design guidelines for use bv private 
developers undertaking the area's 
revitalization. All this began w ith a 
$25,000 Endow ment grant. 

Stimulating the public's awareness 
of the details as w ell as the overall 



dimensions of the environment, 
the College of Architecture at the 
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 
developed a Nebraska Capitol and 
P^nvirons Plan, both to heighten 
aw areness of the importance of the 
capitol building, Bertram Gtxxlhue's 
towering masterpiece which is a 
physical and symbolic presence in 
this prairie city, and to guide plan- 
ners in developing the streets and 
neighborhoods around the capitol, 
participating in getting them to 
see the value of maintaining height 
limitations. 

On the other end of the scale of 
detail, the .Municipal Art Society of 
New ^ ork zeroed in on tw o eyesores 
— the roll-dow n security gates along 
the storefronts on Fulton Street, and 
the Pershing Square \ iaduct in front 
of Grand Central lerminal. Eye- 
sores afflict many people by the 
thousands, day in and day out, being 
both highly visible and too ugly or 
badly maintained for people to really 
w ant to l(K)k. Fulton Street's bleak 
metallic gates w ere embellished w ith 
a mural, commissioned through 



18 



The On-going Quest for Li\ ability 



competition; the merchants along the 
street got plenty of ideas, designs, 
and desire to engage in longer term 
improvements. The \ iaduct is being 
repainted by the city — now a more 
fitting appendage to the restoration 
of the ebullient Terminal. 

As the number and resonance of 
these grants increased and the con- 
cept of "livable cities" gathered 
momentum. Congressman Henry S. 
Reuss held hearings calling attention 
to the value of small grants carefully 
targeted to help practical, level- 
headed design professionals address 
specific problems in particular 
places, rhe hearing called into ques- 
tion the chronically cumbersome 
character of the government's more 
massive urban-oriented expendi- 
tures. Being flexible rather than 
rigid, motivational not prescriptive, 
and focused, "livable cities" was an 
efficient, affordable tool for leverag- 
ing the kind of energ>% creativity, 
and financing that big government 
grants, by their very size, tend to 
forestall or supplant. 



Then in 1978, the program, not 
without hesitation, \\ as transferred 
to the Department of Housing and 
Urban Development's Office of 
Neighborhoods, \'oluntary Associa- 
tions, and Consumer Protection. 
HUD, returning to Congress, was 
unsuccessful in securing the beefed- 
up budgeting of $20 million, despite 
the supportive data and examples 
uncovered in the Reuss hearings. 



Livable cities, as a program, died, 
but its distinctive qualities have been 
incorporated into the Endow ment's 
new ly established grant categories 
and the idea that livable places exist 
around us, if only we w ill see them. 
The momentum of the original 
Endowment program is still w ith us, 
as are the results and lessons of the 
projects it launched. Its record justi- 
fies a sharp rebuke to the kind of 
bureaucratic bungling that some- 
times occurs w hen a successful pro- 
gram of an agency like the Endow- 
ment is coveted and commandeered 
by an agency like HUD. Least easy 
to live with, perhaps, is the thought 
that Congress, for all the noise it has 
made about doing more w ith less 
money, turned aw ay a program that 
had and v\ ould have yielded so much 
more, and for comparatively little 
money. I'hc Livable Cities grants 
produced hard results. Ihere w as 
nothing of the fun-and-games atmo- 
sphere for w hich go\ ernment grants- 
manship is frequently criticized, and 
the projects ha\ e, as intended, set 
other, larger w heels in motion. 



But beyond the grants, themselves, 
w hat we started to notice, think 
about, and care for again — the 145- 
acre area in .\lilw aukee, the streets 
and spaces we laid out and then laid 
out flat to indifference — is that this 
countrv', as it becomes visionary 
enough to look clearly at v\hat it has 
already built, can have a physical 
environment that will reflect and 
receive our most positive, construc- 
tive instincts. How ever long we have 
been in the process of breaking aw ay 
from bleakness, it is encouraging to 
have reason to believe that the city 
Norton Juster depicted may yet be 
consigned to fiction. 

li 'illiam Marlin is the architecture 
and urban-design critic for the 
Christian Science Monitor. 



19 



Introduction 



Rai Okamoto 



Grants Recognized 1965-1980 



The Grants Evaluation Process 



Fifteen years of grant awards and the 
beginning of a new decade form an 
appropriate moment for the Design 
Arts Program of the National 
Endow ment for the Arts to take 
stock of its work by reviewing past 
grants, both to document the nature 
of the projects completed under a 
program that has shifted and greatly 
broadened its constituency over its 
lifetime and to commend and publi- 
cize those projects of particular 
merit. 

To undertake the task of review, the 
Endowment convened its first 
Grants Recognition Panel in Wash- 
ington in February of this year. 
Twelve professionals in various 
design arts fields convened for t\\ o 
days of intensive work, poring over 
the submitted documentation for fif- 
teen years of completed grants at 
Meridian House, a handsome maison 
prive'e given over to public use. 1 he 
panel's charge was to evaluate the 
final results or products of grants 
funded under Ihe Design Arts Pro- 
gram of the .Arts Endowment, sub- 
mitted in response to an application 



form mailed to all past grantees. 
Comprising the panel were Ellen 
Perry Berkeley, writer on architec- 
ture; Peter Blake, Chairman of the 
Department of Architecture and 
Planning, Catholic University; 
.Michael Brill, Professor, School of 
Architecture and Environmental 
Design at the State University of 
New York at Buffalo and President, 
BOSTI; Henry Cobb, Partner, 
I. M. Pei and Partners; Sherrie Cut- 
ler, Vice-President of Ecodesign, 
Inc.; John Eberhard, Director of 
Architectural Research Associates, 
Bethesda, .Maryland; Paul Fried- 
berg, Principal, .M. Paul Friedberg 
and Associates, and Director of the 
Urban Landscape .Architectural Pro- 
gram, City College of New York; 
Doreen Nelson, Director, Center for 
City Building Education Programs; 
Rai Okamoto, Director of City Plan- 
ning, San Francisco Department of 
City Planning; Richard Oliver, 
Curator of Contemporary Design, 
C]ooper-Hev\ itt .Museum of Design; 
Bernard Spring, President of the 
Boston .Architectural Center; and 
John Zeisel, Research .Associate at 



AIIT and Har\ ard University's Joint 
Center for Urban Affairs. 

Ihe nature of the panelists' evalua- 
tions and, based on the evaluations, 
their suggestions for future program 
directions bear recapitulation. 



The panelists divided into groups to 
review grants in four categories: 
Public Fxlucation and .\wareness; 
Urban Quality and the .Arts; Profes- 
sional Research; and Heritage, Con- 
servation, and Planning. In seeking a 
sufficiently common ground for 
comparing the many \\ idely diverse 
projects, the panelists recognized the 
value implied by the original grant 
award and sought criteria that \\ ould 
accommodate the diversity. 

The specificity and the extent to 
which a rigorous systematic 
approach to evaluation was used var- 
ied slightly among the four groups of 
reviewers. In general, panelists 
examined each project individually 
making note of \\ hy it was or was not 
favored. Some panels defined crite- 
ria before beginning their review ; 
others let the criteria fall out of their 
review of projects one by one. For 
example, the Professional Research 
group established in advance the cri- 
teria of uniqueness, significance ot 
the problem, its relevance to a partic- 
ular public, and elegance of method. 
The Heritage, Conser\ ation, and 



20 



Future Program Directions 



Planning group undertook individual 
reviews of the projects first, then 
convened to discuss criteria and 
found they were in substantial agree- 
ment on both the criteria and choice 
of projects. Their primary' criteria 
were best of a kind, effective imple- 
mentation, and effectiveness of a 
project as a communications tool. All 
panelists relied heavily on their col- 
lective judgment and experience 
when common criteria and compara- 
bility remained elusive. 

The diversity of approaches to evalu- 
ation reflected both the great variety 
of projects submitted and the evolu- 
tion of the Endowment program 
during the last fifteen years. For 
example, the American Institute of 
Architects Foundation project 
resulting in the book Learning from 
Las Vegas^ cannot easily be evaluated 
according to the same criteria as Pro- 
fessor Ralph Knowles's research on 
solar access and design without rais- 
ing profoundly difficult questions of 
social relevancy or hierarchies of 
values. Nor are there equally appli- 
cable standards that w ould allow a 



facile comparison between a success- 
ful experiment in the process of 
architectural design for the replace- 
ment of an historic theater^ 
destroyed by fire and an elegant and 
comprehensive publication docu- 
menting a city's downtown architec- 
tural heritage.' Can an innovative 
version of the creative design process 
be compared with the systematic 
recordation of historical fact? Both 
projects belong to the same life spec- 
trum of habitat, yet must be judged 
on their own qualities. The inevita- 
ble contrasts arose as well between 
projects originating in sophisticated 
urban centers of either coast and 
those submitted by relatively small, 
semi-rural communities. Although 
large cities were not penalized, the 
panelists expressed sympathy for 
smaller ones seeking to reward good 
projects in areas assumed less likely 
to participate. From a policy view- 
point, should a Cambridge, xVIassa- 
chusetts, project-* be deemed any less 
successful than one in the Village of 
Williams Bay, Wisconsin,' because 
we expect more? Finally, to \\ hat 
extent, if at all, should social impacts 



be a measure of success? Panelists' 
consciences \\ ere relieved to learn 
that the Savannah Landmark Reha- 
bilitation project had successfully 
achieved its goal of preser\'ation 
while enabling low-income tenants 
to remain residents in the historic 
environment. Nevertheless, several 
expressed concern that the ability of 
Endowment grants to leverage major 
physical changes should not produce 
social disruption and inappropriate 
change. 



During the panelists' summary 
roundtable discussion of their find- 
ings in the four grants categories, 
several suggestions emerged for con- 
sideration in future funding and pro- 
posed direction. First, because the 
panelists w ere impressed with the 
\ ast amount of w ork represented by 
the grants, but which has largely 
remained inaccessible, they recom- 
mended finding \\ ays to disseminate 
grants results more w idelv and the 
development of a computerized 
information file \\ ithin the P2ndow- 
ment for public reference. 

Second, the panelists suggested that 
the Design Arts Program clarify its 
goals in furthering research, perhaps 
giving highest priority to scholarly 
work that contributes substantially 
to a body of knowledge, and in 
which the researcher's commitment 
to the subject typically is total, as 
opposed to fostering "stamp collec- 
tions" or documentation projects. If 
the Endowment chooses to sustain 
research, the panelists felt the pro- 
gram had to address the problem of 
how best to provide continuous 



21 



Introduction 



funding for the experimental, the 
innovative, and the unpredictable 
while continuing to support such 
projects as cultural facilities and 
urban design plans. 

Third, the question was raised as to 
whether to strive for a balanced geo- 
graphic distribution of grants. 1 he 
great majority of grants awarded 
over these first fifteen years have 
been made on the East or West coast, 
or within one of the major metropoli- 
tan areas. Should the program 
undertake an affirmative effort to 
disperse grants more evenly? 

Fourth, should the potential to lever- 
age large results from small grants be 
considered in a grant award? I he 
panelists noted, but did not particu- 
larly judge more favorably, those 
projects that had brought forth 
major public improvements, distin- 
guished architecture, or seminal 
publications with grants of $15,000 
or less. 

Finally, should the Endowment 
actively pursue a role as grant pro- 



vider of last resort? The reality is 
that v\ ithout F.ndowment funds the 
critical first steps of many projects 
might never occur. Municipal reve- 
nues are so scarce that foundation 
support is often the only resource 
available. Federal government 
patronage of design does not gener- 
ally evoke a positive image, yet the 
public works programs of the 
depression years produced laudable 
design and the earlv 1960s saw a 
strong good design initiative in fed- 
erally sponsored building. If the 
Endou ment seeks such a role for the 
1980s, it must resolve major policy 
and funding problems. Thus far, the 
dreaded imprimatur of federal, insti- 
tutional design has been successfully 
avoided; the question is w hether a 
program of greater magnituile can 
avoid it as well. 

The work undertaken with these 
grants provides the tangible evidence 
that our government can use its 
power to foster the intangible activi- 
ties of the design arts that enhance 
our habitat and those who live in it. 
.\s you look at the fifteen years of 



work the.se projects represent, think 
of how much more there is to do and 
how important to society it is to do it. 

1. Robert V'enturi, Denisc Scott IJrown, 
Steven Izenour, Mil Press 1972, 1977. 

2. Pr()\ incctou n Playhouse on the Wharf, 
Inc. (Design Charrettcfor Provincetown). 

3 . Splendid Surcivors: San Francisco's Downtown 
Architectural Heritage, California Living 
B(M)ks, 1979. 

4. Cambridge Arts Council's Parklet Program 
to involve anists in the process of incorporat- 
ing art into public spaces (Art in Cambridge 
Parks). 

5. Village of Williams Bay, Wisconsin. An 
$800,000 ne« lakefront park was built based 
on F.ndowiiieiU-luntied stuilies to reroute a 
highway inland from the shore (A I.akcfront 
Park). ' 



22 



Public Education 
and Awareness 



Public Education and Awareness 



Overview 



Robert McNulty 




Educating the Public to Design 



The Jury's Challenge 



Influencing what is built is not an 
easy task. The dynamics that shape 
our environment are vast and com- 
plex. The ever changing body of 
laws, the state of the economy, pub- 
lic altruism and private interests, 
objective functions and subjective 
tastes — all of these converge, and 
properly so, in the arena of environ- 
mental decisions. "Who built this 
place?" was asked by one of the 
Endowment grantees of their meet- 
ing place, Meridian House. Who 
indeed. How do we get a handle on 
it? We work, so hard, to win a space 
that is beautiful to look at, that is a 
lively and joyful experience to pass 
through, and that respects the mea- 
sure and scale of the lives of the peo- 
ple that flow around and through it. 
While across the street another space 
appeared when we weren't looking — 
bland, wasteful, deadening. 



.\n educated public, demanding 
good design and beautiful surround- 
ings, is a prerequisite for having a 
well-designed place. Sadly, most cli- 
ents, private and corporate, do not 
demand the best; in fact, they often 
insist on the worst. 1 his is not too 
surprising when you consider the 
dearth of available information and 
education about our visual and phys- 
ical world. P or the most part, we are 
exposed to ill-designed buildings and 
bad urban spaces that dull our per- 
ceptive senses and eliminate our 
powers of discrimination. 

Design quality: How much will it 
cost? A perfectly good question, 
although perhaps more accurately 
phrased: I low much will it cost us 
not to incorporate design? For we 
can see the answer to that question 
all around us as wc look and reflect 
on how efficiently our transportation 
systems work, how well our prod- 
ucts compete in the world market, 
and how successful we have been in 
creating truly livable environments. 
Through pulilic education we must 
create a new alliance in the 1980s 



among the other design professions 
and the public to urge, educate, and 
convince private citizens that there 
are profits by design. 

The designer has a visual, social, 
economic, and physical impact on, 
and thus relationship to, the commu- 
nity in w hich he works. Our ability 
to promote more sensitive design 
rests in our ability to educate the 
public to this relationship, to insure 
that the public client is not forgot- 
ten. To do this job, design education 
must address certain fundamental 
needs: the need to inspire greater vi- 
sual literacy among all sectors of so- 
ciety; the need to understand urban 
design as a public commodity, as 
something that affects each and 
every one of us regardless of our 
involvement or investment in the 
process; and the need to establish 
working channels of communication 
about design and its impact upon our 
everyday lives. In this context, the 
Endowment's emphasis on and rec- 
ognition of grants undertaken to edu- 
cate the public and increase their 
au areness of design are critical. 



In reviewing grants in the category 
of Public Etiucation and Awareness, 
the jury had the difficult task of con- 
sidering and balancing at least six 
important factors: timeliness, scale, 
media, audience, intent, and effec- 
tiveness. Furthermore, the jury had 
to consider the passage of time and 
with it our increased sophistication 
toward some of the design problems 
the grants undertook to solve. 

Timeliness. It is a tribute to the success 
of many grants that their results have 
been sow idely disseminated, so 
quickly that they are now ingrained in 
our environment to an extent that we 
may now have to struggle to remind 
ourselves of the inno\ ation and bril- 
liance they conveyed w hen first com- 
pleted . Ihe pioneering success of 
Educational Facilities Laboratories 
(EEL) in .stirring a national mo\ ement 
to preserve and reuse railroad stations 
is a case in point. As a result of EF'L's 
research, publication, and public 
aw areness efforts, railroad stations are 
no longer endangered and are recog- 
nized as a national treasure in faleral 
transportation and heritage legislation. 



24 



Scale. The great richness and diver- 
sity found in the scale of the submis- 
sions is hintecl at by the products of 
two successful grants: The Social Life 
of Small Urban Spaces, a remarkable 
volume and film produced by Wil- 
liam H. W'hvte under a grant to the 
National Recreation and Park Asso- 
ciation, and Five New Kngland 
Towns, \ ision, Inc.'s implementa- 
tion of design guidelines and zoning 
changes in tou ns throughout New 
Kngland. 

Media. At its most effective, public 
education recognizes our sensitivity 
to media in many forms. The jury 
enjoyed the creatively convincing 
efforts of Susan Jackson Keig's exhi- 
bition. Two Shaker \illages; Fxluca- 
tional Futures, Inc.'s participatorv 
design project in Cirand Rapids, 
Michigan; and Marilyn W'ckkI and 
the Celebrations Group's environ- 
mental performances combining 
dance, music, sculpture, film, and 
architecture. 

Audience. While we will alw ays value 
the universality of design and its 



ability to cross barriers that other 
"languages" cannot, the importance 
of identifying one's audience in edu- 
cational efforts is crucial. Fhe success 
of Jersey City's Risorgimento stems 
from a careful delineation of its in- 
tended audience: an appeal to the 
cultural identity of neighborhood 
residents secured their participation 
in Jersey City's Italian \ illage 
renaissance. 

Intent. I o bemuse, to mobilize, and 
to educate are all objectives of public 
education and aw areness. But to 
compare these intentions and their 
resultant products is difficult, at 
best. Hov\ does one compare the 
effectiveness of SITE's delightful 
exploration into the w orld of design 
fantasy in Unbuilt America and the 
scholarly documentation of Julia 
-Morgan's architecture impressively 
produced in slides by Sara Holmes 
Boutelle? 

Effectiveness. Finally, but always, one 
must judge whether a grant suc- 
ceeded in its intended function. I he 
ways we look at success may differ 



w ith each undertaking. For example, 
the effectiveness of America the 
Beautiful Fund's seed grant program 
in environmental aesthetics can 
be measured either by the actual 
implementation of the efforts at com- 
munity impro\ement or by the tre- 
mendous leveraging of private 
in\ estments begun with these seed 
grants. Different again is Hars ard 
University's career discover)' pro- 
gram, successful not only w hen it 
convinces a budding architect, land- 
scape architect, or planner to pursue 
a lifelong career in his or her cho.sen 
field, but also when it dissuades a 
prospective student from undertak- 
ing a course of study for w hich he or 
she is not suited. 

In its review , the jury sought to 
acknow ledge not only the effective- 
ness of the grants published herein, 
but, perhaps more importantly, the 
contributions of an ever expanding 
audience of design clients — those 
w ho have been on the receiving end 
of these good ideas and w ho have 
been inspired to enhance and im- 
prove the environments we all share. 



Robert McNulty was Assistant Director 
of the Architecture, Planning and Design 
Program under Bill N. Lacy. He is non- 
President of Partners for Livable Places. 

Panelists (from left to right in photo- 
graph) Peter Blake, Doreen Nelson, 
Richard Oliver. 



25 



Public Fxiucation ami \\\ arcness 



liicrcasiiiLj Public \uarcncss 




I -earning from Las Vegas 

In 1968, architect Robert Ventiiri 
ami citv planner Denise Scott Brow n 
took their Yale architectural students 
to Las Vegas — not for a weekend 
of spring revels, but with the same 
re\ erence ot purpose the American 
Acatlemy in Rome reser\ es for 
studies of St. Peters Basilica — to 
learn from "the existing landscape." 

What followed that excursion and 
subsequent analysis at Vale was a 
book, funded through the American 
Institute of Architects by the 
National Endowment for the Arts. 
Learning from Las Vegas, published in 
1972, disrupted the complacency of 
Modern architecture with the notion 
that architects could — should — study 
the current vernacular; that there 
was something to be leariieil from 
the vulgar and tasteless Las Vegas 
strip. 

In a preface strongly resembling a 
manifesto, Venturi, Brown, and 
associate Steven Izenour assert, "We 
believe a careful documentation and 
analysis of [Las Vegas's] physical 
form is as important to architects and 



urbanists today as were the studies 
of medieval Lurope and ancient 
Rome and ( ireece to earlier genera- 
tions." With the suggestion that stu- 
dents of architecture cross the street 
to study the supermarket and park- 
ing lot instcati ot crossing the ocean 
to\iew ancient Rome, \enturi and 
Brow n challenged the appropriate- 
ness of the historical reference and 
symbolism in current use. "Learning 
from the existing landscape is a w ay 
of being revolutionary for an archi- 
tect. Not the obvious way, which is 
to tear down Paris and begin again, 
as Le C-orbusier suggested in the 
192()'s, but another, more tolerant 
w ay; that is to question how we look 
at things." 

The first of the book's three parts, 
entitled ".\ Significance for A & P 
Parking Lots, or Learning from Las 
Vegas," provides the study model for 
seeing, w ith a detailed environmen- 
tal analysis of The Strip— its casinos 
ami roadsigns and pla.ster nudes and 
fountains in a variety of scale, form, 
and material. 



Part n, "Ugly and Ordinary Archi- 
tecture, or the Decorated Shed," 
explores the uses of symbolism both 
in .Modern architecture and the cur- 
rent \ ernacular. The authors posit a 
contradiction betw een the image and 
sul)stanceof the symbolism in ortho- 
dox .\l(xlern architecture: " Ihe sym- 
bolism of Modern architecture is 
usually functional, but w hen these 
functional elements work symboli- 
cally, they usually do not work 
functionally." \ enturi's examples 
include using glass walls for western 
exposures, industrial clerestories 
h)r suburban high schools, mass- 
prcKluced systems for underdevel- 
oped countries, and elaborate hand- 
constructed wooden formw ork to 
make patterns on concrete-sheathed 
buildings in high-cost labor econo- 
mies. Venturi homes in on these 
elements not solely for their failure 
to function, but for their symbolic, 
rather than functional, importance 
to .\l(Klern architecture, w hich all 
the w hile refuses to acknow ledge 
symbolism as a viable architectural 
element. 



P rom a sophisticated indictment of 
.Modern architecture for its theoreti- 
cal contradictions and symbolic irrel- 
evance to contemporary society and 
culture, \ enturi. Brow n, and Ize- 
nour proceed to argue for the tlesign 
of simple buildings with strong sym- 
bolic applications having meaning to 
society rather than monuments to 
tastemakers that lca\ e most of the 
built environment an unconsidered 
stepchild. 

The last part oi Learning from Las 
Vegas catalogues the authors' ow n 
work by w ay of linking their theor\' 
to practice. In buildings such as 
Guild I louse, the Lieb beach house, 
and Pire Station No. 4, the archi- 
tects/authors demonstrate their w ill- 
ingness to symbolize ordinary, pop- 
ular culture by applying its symbols 
as decorative elements to simple 
boxes of conventional construction: 
ordinary doorknobs and w indow s, 
such as the o\ ersized, double-hung 
w indow s of Guild House, that evoke 
the image of all window s commonly 
seen. 



26 



Bfl? 



1 






a' r-TFr- 



^. -J"Ti " \ 







rr 



rr 



1* 




i r 


1 


r r r r r 





Richard Morris Hunt 



Reflecting on his polemic against 
Modern architecture's "prima- 
donna-on-the-landscapc" approach, 
Venturi said, "After all, if vou really 
had a city where every building was 
extraordinary — w hy, they'd really 
all be ordinary, wouldn't they?"* 

*lnterview with Paul Goldberger, The New 
York Times Magazine, October 17, 1971. 

Grantee: 

American Institute of Architects 

Foundation, Philadelphia Office 

Project Directors: 

Robert \ enturi, Denise Scott 

Brown, and Steven Izenour, \ enturi 

and Ranch, Architects and Planners 

Participants: 

Stephen Fstock, author/designer; 

Students in the Department of 

Architecture, Yale University, 

School of Art and Architecture 

Learning from Las Vegas, published by 
MIT Press, 1972. 

1,2 

The Las Vegas "Strip." Photographs cour- 
tesy of Venturi and Rauch. 



Since 1977, the American Institute of 
Architects Foundation has adminis- 
tered a magnificent collection of 
architectural drawings and photo- 
graphs that had never before been 
accessil)le for research. The Arts 
Fndow ment supported a one-year 
project to assess and inventory the 
collection, which had been stored 
improperly in wooden crates for 
years. Originally thought to have 
four thousand items, the Prints and 
Draw ings Collection was found to 
contain more than twenty thousand 
photographs and drawings, among 
w hich \\ ere rare \\ orks attributable 
to such luminaries as William 
Thornton, Ammi B. Young, 
Thomas Ustick Walter, Henry 
Bacon, and Richard Morris Hunt. 

Additional sources of funding have 
enabled the project to continue. Ihe 
arrangement, conservation, and stor- 
age of the collection as well as the 
publication of a guide are under way. 

Cirantee: 

Ihe American Institute of Archi- 
tects Foundation 



Project Director: 
Jeanne Butler Hodges, Executive 
Director, American Institute of 
Architects Foundation 
Participants: 

Susan S. Ganelin, project archivist; 
Sherry C. Birk, inventor)' associate; 
Enzabeth Ciill, inventory aide; vol- 
unteer student interns from Ameri- 
can University 



1 

Lenox Library, east side of Fifth Avenue 
between 10th and 71st Streets, New 
York, New York, 1870-77. 
2 

Proposal for the Union League Club, 
New York, New York, 1867. 
3 

William Borden House, Lake Shore 
Drive at Bellevue Place, Chicago, Illi- 
nois, 1884-89. Photographs by J. 
Michael Kanouff. Prints and Drawings 
Collection, The AIA Foundation. 



27 



Public Education and Awareness Increasing Public \\\ areness 




f 




/ 



Two Hundred Years of American 
Architectural Drawing 

"Architectural drawing is the step- 
child of the arts. After seeing the 
exhibition of ' Fwo Hundred Years 
of American Architectural Drawing' 
I have been wondering why the sub- 
ject has always had a kind of second- 
class status." I'hus wrote Ada Louise 
Huxtable after this traveling exhibi- 
tion opened at the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum in New York in 1977. PVom 
New York, the exhibition traveled to 
Jacksonville, Florida, The Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago, and the Amon 
Carter Museum in Port Worth. 
Both the exhibition and the book. 
Two Hundred Years of American Archi- 
tectural Drawing, organized jointly 
by The Architectural League of 
New York and The American Fed- 
eration of the Arts, and funded in 
part by the .Arts Endowment, awak- 
ened the interest of architects and 
the public at large to the value of 
architectural drawings as art and as 
records of our architectural heritage. 

Two Hundred Years of American Archi- 
tectural Drawing elegantly traces the 
history of American architecture 
through the drawings of eighty-five 



distinguished American architects. 
Published by the Whitney Library 
of Design, the book is organized in 
two sections. The first is an intro- 
ductoiy essay by David Gebhard, 
"Drawings and Intent in American 
Architecture," \\ hich outlines the 
history of architectural drawing in 
the United States and describes the 
character of architectural drawings 
and their relationships to built 
works. Fhe second part of the book 
presents the exhibition drawings in 
six chronological periods. Deborah 
Nevins, who v\ as curator of the exhi- 
bition together with David Ciebhard, 
discusses these drawings in the con- 
text of the individual architect's 
career. Viewed in this u ay, the 
drawings appear not only as beauti- 
ful objects, but as expressions of the 
time and forces that shaped them. 

The extraordinary collection of 
drawings show s the marked individ- 
uality of each architect's sensibility. 
Ciathering the collection for the book 
and the accompanying exhibit was 
an artluous task. No central reposi- 
tory or complete index of architec- 



tural drawings exists in the United 
States. Some few collections are 
notable for their breadth, quality, 
and documentation; however, much 
of the material remains scattered in 
diverse public and private collections 
across the country. In addition, the 
careers and work of many architects 
in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and 
even tw entieth century are obscure. 
If these conditions made the work of 
preparing the book and exhibition 
exacting, they also made it a major 
art historical undertaking. 

Architects documented by this col- 
lection include Charles Bullfinch, 
Thomas Jefferson, and John Trum- 
bull for the period 1776 — 1819; James 
Dakin, William Strickland, Richard 
Upjohn, (Jalvert \ aux, and I homas 
U. Walter (1820-1861); Frank Fur- 
ness, Richard .Morris I lunt, and 
Henr\' Hobson Richardson (1862 — 
1889); Ralph Adams Cram, Cass Cil- 
bert, .Marion .Mahony, and Ix)uis 
Henry Sullivan (1890-1919); 
Richard J. Neutra, Eliel Saarinen, 
Ludw ig .Mies van der Rohc, and 
Frank Lloyd Wright (1920-1944); 



RomaldoGiurgola, Bruce Goff, 
Louis I. Kahn, Paul Rudolph, and 
Robert \enturi (1945-1976). 

Grantee: 

The Architectural League of 

New York 

Project Directors: 

David Gebhard and Deborah Nevins, 

curators and catalogue authors 

Participants: 

Massimo V'ignelli, catalogue design 

Two Hundred Years of American Archi- 
tectural Drawing, published by the 
Whitney Library of Design, 1977. 



Eliel Saarinen' s elevations and floor plan 

for Cran brook Academy, Bloomfteld 

Hills, Michigan. 

2 

Ink and colored wash elevation for the 

Bank ofLouiroille, Kentucky, by James 

H. Dakin, 1834-1831. 

3 

Rotunda, the University of Virginia. 

Thomas Jefferson s elevation , probably 

1821. Photographs courtesy of The 

American Federation of the Arts. 



28 





|riir 

' ,"% III m rt - 
'• •.* ]IM IMbl ■.' 




On Site 



K\'ery once in a while someone does 
something so simple, so obvious, and 
so right that the rest of us are left 
wondering, "Why hasn't anyone 
(me, for example) done that before?" 
A classic example is the book Unbuilt 
America: Forgotten Architecture in the 
United States from Thomas Jefferson to 
the Space Age. Conceived and edited 
by SI IF,, Inc.'s (Sculpture in the 
Knvironment) Alison Sky and 
Michelle Stone (w ith an intnxluction 
by (ieorge R. Collins), it considers 
architecture in America from the 
tresh and thought-provoking per- 
spective of designs for real buildings 
that, for one reason or another, u ere 
never built. The result is a genuinely 
original contribution to the history 
ot architecture and an inspiring and 
insightful collection of ideas. 

1 rom an historical point of view 
alone. Unbuilt America is a veritable 
treasure, documenting many hereto- 
fore unpublished designs (including 
those of the U.S. Centennial and 
Bicentennial competitions). It 
presents works by students and 
unknown professionals, as well as by 



architects regarded as geniuses in the 
field. Among them: Thomas 
Jefferson's competition design for a 
President's House in Washington, 
D.C.; Adolf Loos's submission to 
the Chicago Tribune Tower compe- 
tition, and Claes Oldenburg's "late 
submission" for the same contest; 
Raymond Hood's Central Methodist 
Kpiscopal Church for Ohio; Julia 
Morgan's Wyntoon for the Hearsts; 
Henry Hobson Richardson's Castle 
Hill (R.I.) Lighthouse; Frank Lloyd 
Wright's Mile-high Skyscraper (the 
"Illinois"); and Lloyd Wright's 
design for a twentieth century' metro- 
politan (Catholic cathedral. The book 
is a delightful and titillating dream- 
journey through the realm of \\ hat 
might have been. 

Unbuilt America is only part of the 
achievements of Sky and Stone, 
because it is actually number seven 
in the On Site series. An ambitious 
publication, On Site strives to present 
material that will bridge the gap 
between architecture and the envi- 
ronmental and fine arts and to serve 
as an interdisciplinary catalyst, (con- 



sistent with these ends, it explores 
problems to every depth — technical, 
sociological, and political as well as 
artistic. On Site, in one re\ iewer's 
words, "is encouraging architects to 
think" again. 

Grantee: 

SITE, Inc. 

Project Directors: 

Alison Sky and Michelle Stone 

Participants: 

James Wines, George R. Collins 

Unbuilt America, published by 
McGraw-Hill, 1976. 

1 

TheReinhardt Theatre, 1928. A pro- 
posal by Joseph Urban for a theater in 
New York with the ft re escapes pulled out 
as ''a golden arabesque against the shining 
black of the facade." Drawing courtesy of 
The American Architect, 792^. 
2 

The Chicago Tribune Tower Competi- 
tion. On June 10, 1922, coinciding with 
its seventy-fifth anniversaty, the Chicago 
Tribune announced an international 
competition for the design of ''the most 



beautiful and distinctive office building 
in the world" to house this greatest of 
newspapers. Among the spectacular losing 
entries responding to this modest call was 
a skyscraper in the form of a Greek Doric 
column by Adolf Loos, who accompanied 
his drawing with the humble statement 
that ''no pictorial representation is capa- 
ble of rendering the effect of this column; 
the smooth burnished surface of the cube 
and the fluting of the column overwhelm 
the observer. It would create a surprise, a 
sensation, even in our modern and blase 
times!' Drawing courtesy of the Tribune 
Company, Chicago. 
3 

Responding in kind to the hyperbole, 
albeit at a distance of forty-five years, 
Claes Oldenburg proposed this late sub- 
mission to the competition: the "spring" 
as well as the area between the legs of his 
clothespin tower would be a wind tunnel; 
the rod of the spring along the side of the 
building would be glassed in and contain 
a restaurant. Drawing courtesy of Claes 
Oldenburg. 



29 



Public Education and Awareness 



Increasing Public Au areness 



4 < 



i « * 









Y -4 ''^:jy- rvTrrrr 

5^rr^'"" III 



-tTl: 



iit»r -r.«3>dl 




HWfUtl"-- i«ri 



. - * 
t 



# t^: 



Women in American Architecture 



Women have traditionally shaped 
the domestic environment in their 
role as homemakers, yet their contri- 
butions as professional designers 
ha\ c rarely been documented. 
Women in American Architecture: An 
Historic and Contemporary Perspective, 
published in 1977 by the Whitney 
Library of Design and sponsored by 
Phc Architectural League of New 
York, sets out to document and com- 
ment on those women and the work 
that was able to o\ ercome the bar- 
riers of an elitist and medieval craft- 
oriented profession. 

More than just a catalogue of the few 
American women architects able to 
gain entry and recognition in their 
profession, the book, and the travel- 
ing exhibition on which it was based, 
sets out to analyze the social milieu 
that relegated women to marginal 
roles in architecture and to the 
design of domestic space. As author 
Susana Torre asks in her intrcxiuc- 
tion: "Why has the idea that women 
as architects are only suited to design 
domestic space been .so prevalent in 
writings about women and architec- 



ture for the past 100 years? . . . Why 
ha\ e there been no great women 
architects?" Her answer is a refusal 
merely to dust off and pull together 
the meagre works of those feu 
women \\ ho did succeed in their pro- 
fession in America; a refusal to offer 
up an exhibit that would enable 
critics and skeptics to reply that 
"1 here are no great women [archi- 
tects] because women are incapable 
of greatness."* Instead, the book and 
exhibit reply with discussions of the 
circumstances and structures that 
have limited and directed the 
achievements of women. 

Women in American Architecture, then, 
is more than a scrapbook of notable 
and unnoted women architects; it 
reconstructs and documents their 
work in history. Ihe book is divided 
into five parts, with chapters \\ ritten 
by thirteen women v\ ell know n in 
architectural journalism. The first 
part, "Women's Place: The Design 
of Domestic Space," offers a largely 
pictorial overview of how profes- 
sional \v omen have designed for and 
written about women as workers in 



the home. The section shows exam- 
ples of domestic architecture created 
by women, architecture that chal- 
lenged the American domestic ideal 
and architecture that had that ideal 
as its premise. Included are designs 
by .Mice Constance .\ustin and the 
Amana Community in Iowa in the 
nineteenth centur\' — cases where 
domestic w ork w as restructured 
through design, as well as the w ork 
of Catherine Beecher who, in 1869, 
designed the first house w ith an open 
plan to facilitate w oman's role as effi- 
cient manager and "minister in the 
Christian commonwealth of the home.' 

The second section of the book 
describes the careers of women 
architects from the mid-nineteenth 
century through the 1960s. Pioneers 
of this period include Louise Bethune, 
w ho opened her ow n office in Buf- 
falo in the 18H()s; Sophia Hayden, 
the winner of the U omen's Building 
Competition in 1891; .Marion 
Mahony Ciriffin, an MIT graduate 
of 1894; and Julia .Morgan, the Cali- 
fornia architect w ho designed eight 
hundred buildings after the turn of 



the century. Included as well are 
such tw entieth-century architects as 
Denise Scott Brown, Elizabeth Coit, 
Sarah Harkness, Eleanor Raymond, 
Lilian Rice, and .Mary Otis Stevens. 

The third section of the book 
explores the position of women as 
architectural critics through the 
careers of Catherine Bauer, Ada 
Louise Huxtable, Jane Jacobs, and 
Sybil Moholy-Nag)'. The fourth 
section offers a perspective on the 
position of women in the profession 
of architecture today. Ihe fifth sum- 
marizes v\ omen's response to space. 

In addition to serving as the editor of 
Women in American Architecture: An 
Historic and Contemporary Perspective, 
Susana Torre w as also the project 
director and curator of the exhibi- 
tion, w hich opened at the Brooklyn 
.Museum of Art in Eebruarv* 1977, 
and traveled to museums and gal- 
leries in Boston, Houston, Ix)s 
Angeles, Colorado Springs, and 
Kansas City. 



30 




The project was funded by the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts and 
the New York State Council on the 
Arts; it received many additional con- 
tributions from private corporations. 

*Torre quoting art historian Linda 
Nochlin in the book introduction. 

Grantee: 

The Architectural League of 

New York 

Executi\ e Director: 

Marita O'Hare 

Project Director: 

Susana Torre 

Participants: 

(Essayists) Susan Fondiler Berkon, 

Sara Boutelle, Doris Cole, Dolores 

Hayden, Carolyn Johnson, Naomi 

Leff, Lucy R. Lippard, Jane 

McGroarty, Judith Paine, Suzanne 

Stephens, Mary Otis Stevens, 

G\\ endolyn Wright; Sheila de 

Bretteville, book design 

Women in American Architecture: An 
Historic and Contemporary Perspective, 
published by the Whitney Library of 
Design, 1977. 



A Pantheon and Home for Soldiers and 
Sailors. A design by Ida Annah Ryan, 
which won the prestigious Travelling 
Fellowship from the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology for the year 1906. 
Photograph courtesy of MIT Historical 
Collections. 
2 

An innovative solar house in Belmont, 
Massachusetts, designed in 1931 by Bos- 
ton architect Eleanor Raymond, who 
transcended her classic Beaux Arts train- 
ing to use new materials and technology 
in domestic architecture. Photograph by 
Eleanor Raymond. 



31 



Public Fxlucation and \\\ arcncss 



Increasing Piihlic \\v arcncss 





J|L»i»U' ti^ ■■'.''■ Sir 



The Work of Julia Morgan 



A few residences in the vv orld are so 
opulent and architecturally distinc- 
tive that thev are legend: Blenheim, 
the Breakers at Newport, Louis 
Xl\"s palace at \ ersailles, and the 
Hearst Castle in California. In spite 
of the fame of one of these, the 
I learst castle, few know it was 
designed by an exceptional woman 
architect, Julia Morgan. Thanks to 
Sara Flolmcs lioutelle, however, this 
is beginning to change. 

Over the past five years, Ms. 
Boutelle, also founder of the Julia 
Morgan .Association, has researched 
and docunientetl the life and work of 
the California architect who 
designetl more than seven hundred 
buildings during her fifty-year 
career. Besides cataloguing Morgan's 
designs, Boutelle has prcKluced a 
slide show with a tape and speaker's 
text that skillfully and economically 
communicate the range and charac- 
ter of the architect's career. Of the 
original eighty slides, forty — twenty 
institutional projects and tw enty res- 
idential projects — arc nov\ available 
commercially with lecture notes, so 



that schools, professionals, and 
scholars can study and learn from 
Morgan's unique style. 

I o apply a rather tired but in this 
case to-the-point word, .Morgan's 
style can best be described as eclec- 
tic. .\n unusual and intelligent use of 
classical, .Mediterranean, .Xbssion, 
rural American, (iothic, and i udor 
architecture reflects her Beaux Arts 
training, her California roots, and 
her appreciation ot the diverse 
regional and period styles acquired 
through extensive travel. Although 
many of her designs called tor exqui- 
site wocxlcarving and ornamental 
stone and plasterwork that Morgan 
herself super\ised w ith great partic- 
ularity, some of her more character- 
istic v\ ork made use of found and 
locally available materials to achieve 
simplicity anil harm(»nv w ith the 
landscape. In designing a house tor 
the superintendent of the North Star 
Mine near (Jrass Valley, C'alifornia, 
for example, Julia Morgan useil rail 
ties and track from the mine for w in- 
dow frames, and she trequently used 
stone and woodwork for exterior walls. 



it is quite a distance tVom the gor- 
geous, ostentatious San Simeon to a 
redwocxl house near Grass \ alley 
that almost ilisappears among the 
hills and trees — a distance that 
barely hints at the scope and scale of 
.Morgan's talents. Covering the 
ground between them — \'\\ C.\ 
buiklings, Asilomar ( j)nfcrence 
(irounds, the Mills (College Bell 
Tower, The Fairmont Hotel restora- 
tion, and more — is Sara Boutelle's 
excellent slitle show . 

(irantee and Project Director: 
Sara I lolmes lioutelle 
Participants: 

Neaie McCJoKlrick anil James Kde- 
len, photographers; Barbara Bair, 
coordinator; Paul \\ rangell, instruc- 
tional ser\ ices 
Distributor: 

Budek I'ilnis and Slides, Newport, 
Kh(Kle Island 



/ 

Julia Morgan receiving honorary degree 

at the University of California at 

Berkeley. 

2 

Theatre in a palace, 1902. 
S 

Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco, 1907. 
4 

Neptune Pool at San Simeon, 1920s. 
5 

Interior of Chapel of the Chimes, Oak- 
land, California, 1926. 
Photographs Courtesy of Sara Holmes 
Boutelle. 



32 














I'he Great Camps of the 
Adirondacks 

During the late nineteenth and early 
t\\ entieth centuries, high in the 
mountain lakes region of New York 
and far from the convenience of even 
a public road, families \\ ith names 
like \ anderbilt, Morgan, Carnegie, 
and Post built summer residences. 
They are elegant places, w ith 
beamed ceilings, wainscotting, cus- 
tom-made furniture, tinv-paned 
windows and gingerbread details, 
unique \\ allcoverings, and branched 
chandeliers. The work is exquisite, 
but it is a little different from what 
one might imagine. The beams of 
the ceilings are w hole trees, stripped 
of their limbs and rough-hew n; the 
wainscotting is split sapling; and the 
gingerbread detailed but carefully 
bent and coiled tree limbs. One of 
the posts ot a tour-poster bed is an 
entire limb of a tree, branches intact, 
that seems to continue to grow up 
toward the roof. The "lead" of the 
paned w indow s is narrow strips of 
wood, the w allc()\ erings birch bark, 
and the chandeliers the antlers of 
moose and deer. 



These are the great camps of the 
Adirondacks. Ihey are examples of 
regional architecture at its rustic 
best: astonishingly simple, tasteful, 
and honest where they could so eas- 
ily have been overwrought, \ ulgar, 
and contrived. 

Unfortunately, the future of these 
great camps is in question. Although 
some of the thirty-five still well- 
preser\ ed camps remain safely in 
pri\ ate hands, most are regarded as 
w hite elephants too large and expen- 
sive for either private or institutional 
maintenance. An attempt to protect 
them by making them part of the 
huge Adirondack Forest Preserve is 
under w ay, but there is a problem, 
and an ironic one: the 1890s constitu- 
tional law that protects the forest has 
a "forever wild" clause that calls for 
the return of all properties acquired 
by the state to their original w ilder- 
ness condition. For the great camps, 
this translates as ilemolition. 

In an effort to bring the great camps 
and their dilemma to public atten- 
tion and resolution, Harvey Kaiser 



has flown, hiked, driven, tramped, 
and canoed tw enty thousand miles of 
territopy' to photograph the camps, 
research their history, and talk to 
owners and local residents. He has 
prepared an inventory of the camps 
as part of the submission require- 
ments to be nominated for the 
National Register of Historic Places, 
and is working on a book that will be 
published by David R. Ciodine in 
the near future. Fhe most important 
product of his w ork to date, how- 
ever, is a slicie presentation and pho- 
tograph collection intended to serve 
as a public policy guide for future 
architectural preservation. Given 
that Kaiser's presentations have 
encouraged attempts to amend the 
.New York State Constitution to 
allow for the preservation of the 
great camps w ithin the Adirondack 
Forest Preserve, they are clearly 
effective ones. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Harvey Kaiser 
Photography: 
Harvey Kaiser 



1,2 

At Camp Kill Kare, beds and other 

furniture are fashioned from entire tree 

limbs. 

Kill Kare's rustic stone bam contrasts 

with the finished cobblestones tower at the 

catnpat Upper St. Re^is Lake. 

5 

Echo Camp at Racquette Lake abounds 

in wood detail as well. 



33 



Public Education and Aw arcness 



Increasing Public Au arcness 




Shaker Heritage in Kentucky 

America's bicentennial offered an 
unprecedented opportunity for each 
state to tell the rest of the country, 
and the world, of its unique and 
valuable contribution to American 
culture and history. One of the finest 
and most quintessentially American 
ot the wealth of programs produced 
in 1976 was a celebratory exhibit of 
Shaker life in two Kentucky villages. 
South Union and Pleasant Hill. It 
was designed by Susan Jackson 
Kcig, with photographs by James L. 
Ballard and a 16mm sound-track film 
by Bill Hafeman, as the Kentucky 
Arts Commission's major bicenten- 
nial project. 

Both South Union and Pleasant Hill 
were excellent sources of material for 
communicating the beliefs, prac- 
tices, and lifestyle of the Shakers. 
Self-contained and nearly self- 
sufficient, they boasted schools, 
sawmills, farms, broom and textile 
factories, and grist mills. The 
Shakers were industrious and inven- 
tive manufacturers and agricultur- 
ists, widely known for such products 
as medicinal herbs, iridescent silks. 



the rotary harrow , the fiat broom, 
packaged garden seed, and the screw 
propeller. Portions of the \ illages 
that remain provided not only 
superb subject matter for text and 
film, but many original tools, house- 
hold items, furnishings, and other 
artifacts for display. 

The exhibit, like the Shaker heri- 
tage, has endured. After a month at 
J. B. Speed Art Museum in Louis- 
ville and three w eeks at the Ameri- 
can Institute of Graphic Arts in New- 
York, it was converted to a compact, 
free-standing traveling exhibit. For 
over three years it has traveled 
throughout Kentucky, carrying w ith 
it the spirit of Shaker communal liv- 
ing and a sense of the harmonv, 
purity of line, and functional hon- 
esty that characterized the physical 
side of Shaker life. 

Grantee and Designer: 

Susan Jackson Keig 

Participants: 

James L. Ballard, photographer; Bill 

Hafeman, filmmaker; James C. 

Thomas, Betty Morris, and Ed 



Nickels, Shakertown at Pleasant 
Hill; Julia Neal and Deedy Hall, 
Shakertow n at South Union; Nash 
Cox and Charles Curro, Kentucky 
.\rts Commission; Elmer Ray Pear- 
son, consultant/historical photo- 
graphs; Franklin Page, J. B. Speed 
Art .Museum; Doug and Gwen 
Noren, Guild of Shaker Crafts 

1,2 

Examples of Shaker design from Bicenten- 
nial exhibit entitled ''Two Shaker Vil- 
lages: South Union and Pleasant Hill, 
Kentucky." f. B. Speed Art Museum, 
Louisville. Photographs by fames 
L. Ballard from Susan Jackson Keig 
Collection. 



The Milltown: \ Sense of Place, a 
Way of Life 

1-93 to Manchester, New Hamp- 
shire. A line of soft red brick build- 
ings looms into view along the .Mer- 
rimack River, the apex of a Victorian 
tower peeking out from behind. The 
impression of a university in pecu- 
niar^' difficulties, or some old F^uro- 
pean walled town; of unity of pur- 
pose and consi.stency of design. 

This is Amoskeag — what remains of 
it, that is. Once a virtually self- 
contained city, housing the greatest 
textile complex in the w orld, its riv- 
erfront is now little more than a 
facade. The curving structures of the 
millyard, once compared to Regent 
Street in London, are gone. The 
canals, which followed the millyard 
contours, have been filled in. The 
people, many of whom lived and 
w orked there in old age, have left. 
One of the finest examples of urban 
planning destroved, ironically, in 
the name of urban renew al. 

But in spite of physical destruction, 
.\moskeag has been preserved — in 
pictures, in the taped voices of 
workers, in salvaged fragments of 



34 




architecture and furnishings. In 
1967, shortly after the decision was 
made to replace many of Amoskeag's 
perfectly planned buildings with 
parking lots, Randolph Langenbach 
went to Manchester to document the 
mill complex on film. He went, 
Linhof view camera in hand, as an 
architectural photographer, intent 
on taking pictures that would be of 
interest to architects and industrial 
archaeologists. In 1975 he was still 
there, producing the multi-media 
exhibit, "Amoskeag: A Sense of 
Place, a Way of Life," shov\n at the 
Currier Gallery of Art, that had 
developed out of his original task. 
Over the years, Langenbach had 
traded off his Linhof for other tools: 
tape recorder, u rench and ropes, 
typewriter. He had become histo- 
rian, sociologist, scavenger, crusad- 
ing writer— talking w ith former 
Amoskeag inhabitants, carting av\ ay 
unique architectural features on the 
eve of the demolition, publishing the 
story of Amoskeag in an effort to 
save it, and others like it. As a result, 
Langenbach's exhibit, codesigned 
with Sergio Modigliani and with an 



oral history by his \\ ife, historian 
Tamara Hareven, was a vivid por- 
trayal not only of place, but of a peo- 
ple and a way of life. Besides the 
expected scholars and architects, 
thousands of former mill people 
came to the exhibition gallery as if 
visiting an old hometown. Many had 
never been to a museum before; 
many were reunited in the gallerj' 
hall after separations of thirty years; 
all, as they w andered among the 
large-as-life photographs of build- 
ings and workers, punctuated by 
taped voices and mill artifacts, felt as 
if they had stepped back in time to 
.\moskeag itself. 

From the original exhibit evolved a 
book, Amoskeag: Life and Work in an 
American Factory City, and in 1978, 
with the aid of a second Endowment 
grant, expanded exhibits comparing 
milltowns in England and New 
England. In creating this second 
exhibition, entitled "Satanic Mills," 
Langenbach widened his canvass ot 
industrial architecture to the grand 
series of textile mills in Yorkshire, 
England. These mills in England's 



industrial North country for over a 
centur\' have suffered from the dark 
image evoked by the lines from Wil- 
liam ^\3k€ s Jerusalem , 

"And was Jerusalem builded here 
.\mong these dark Satanic Mills?" 

— with memories of child labor, 
disease, and finally unemployment 
tainting them in the minds of 
the English. 

Langenbach's beautiful photographs, 
in contrast to these dark images, 
draw attention to the magic of the 
industrial landscape of the Pennines, 
and as in Amoskeag, to the special 
attachment the mills have in the 
hearts of the factory workers, as well 
as to their architectural quality. 

By always striving to capture the 
soul, and not just the Ixxly, of what 
he photographed; by attempting to 
record timelessness, and not just an 
instant in time; Langenbach has 
prompted an aw areness and appreci- 
ation for industrial history that are 
now serving as a lesson to the pres- 



ent: to carefully consider the aesthetic 
and historical as well as the economic 
issues surrounding old industrial 
architecture, and to seek new uses 
for apparently obsolete space. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Randolph Langenbach 
Participant: 
Sergio .Modigliani 

Amoskeag: Life and Work in an 
American Factory City, published by 
Pantheon Books, 1978. 



Lower Canal, Amoskeag Mill, Manches- 
ter, New Hampshire, 1968. 
2 

Stairway, New York Mills, 197 L 
3 

Interior of the Stark Mill #2 , the day 
before it was demolished. 
4 

Loomfixers, Chicopee Mill, Amoskeag 
Millyard, March 197^. Photographs by 
Randolph Langenbach. 



35 



Public Education and Aw arcncss Increasing Pul)lic \u arcness 



\npvinrv » » ' vvv ' y " M^V'^^ 'j W^^^'wi 





Working Places 



Building Book for ixw iston, Maine 



A great number of nineteenth and 
early twentieth century industrial 
buildings that dot the landscape of 
our older cities need a forceful advo- 
cate if they are not to fall prey to 
dilapidation and destruction. "Work- 
ing Places," a 16mm slide film and 
motion picture produced by the 
Society for Industrial Archeology, 
celebrates the spirit, history, and 
value of many industrial structures 
across the country, and their current 
renaissance. People who have cher- 
ished their communities' old build- 
ings and have become spokespeople 
for their preservation ponder a 
curious fact: although these build- 
ings were originally designed for 
industry, they seem to have more 
of a humane quality than do most 
buildings designetl today. Because of 
this quality they can and are being 
brought back to life as warm, 
contemporary living and work- 
ing places. 

From a shopping complex born as a 
trolley barn to imaginative apart- 
ments re-styled from an old tannery, 
the empty old work place has fount! 



new life. "Working Places" cele- 
brates l)oth the old vitality and the 
resurgence of the public's apprecia- 
tion of it. 

Grantee: 

Society for Industrial .\rcheology 

Project Director: 

Chester H. Liebs 

Participants: 

John Karol, Producer/Director; 

(SI A Directors assisting) Robert M. 

\ Ogel, Richard M. Candee, Iheo- 

dore A. Sande 



The city of Lewiston, Maine, has 
undertaken a bit of design conscious- 
ness-raising bv publishing a b(K)k of 
guidelines on buikling facade reno- 
vation for use by residents. In the 
Doivrjstreet Building Book, sketches of 
local buildings give readers an over- 
view of the architectural styles that 
dominate the streetscape, follow ed 
by drawings of appropriate and inap- 
propriate rehabilitation techniques. 
I he b(M)k w as conceix ed ot as a way 
to encourage c()mpatil)ilitv among 
numerous rehabilitation projects be- 
ing undertaken as part of a $22 million 
downtown revitalization program. 

(Iran tee: 

City ot Ixw iston, .Maine 

Project Director: 

(lore Flynn 

Participants: 

Richard P. Flewelling, editor and 

designer; Breniia (iarrand, design 

assistant; Diane Jaquith, graphics 

Downstreet Building Book is a\ ailable 
on request from the (>ity of I>ewiston 
Planning Department, City I lall. 
Room 30H, Lewiston, .Maine 04240 



1,2 

An example from the ''Downstreet 
Building Book'' showing the unsightly 
results of inappropriate renovation to an 
existing facade. Drawings by Lewiston 
Planning Department. 



36 




Seed Grants 



The San Francisco newspaper head- 
line read: "Xicasio may start a land 
planning revolution." Revolution it 
may someday he — started with a 
small $3,000 grant to two energetic 
environmental design students seek- 
ing an outlet for their grow ing pro- 
fessional skills. 

This and numerous other studies 
sponsored in the late sixties by the 
.America the Beautiful Fund are 
vivid testimony to the value of seed 
grants, relatively small but well- 
placed monies that in many cases 
blossomed into major community 
efforts of enormous environmental 
value. Between 1967 and 1972, with 
funding from the .\rts Endowment, 
.\merica the Beautiful set up as 
many as one hundred en\ ironmcntal 
design internships in some years, 
supporting young professionals and 
community groups v\ho undertook 
civic projects to improve their man- 
made environment or save and 
enhance a natural area. 

The Xicasio project \\ as a classic 
example — an innovative land plan 



recommended by t\\ o L ni\ ersity of 
California students to sa\ e a Marin 
County valley from falling victim to 
suburban spraw 1. On the nation's 
opposite coast, in Maine, a $500 
grant was made to conduct a photo 
documentary study, "As Maine 
Goes," which awakened local com- 
munities to the need to safeguard the 
coastline. The result was an inten- 
sive, federally funded $90,000 com- 
munity education program on saving 
the Maine seacoast. 

.\ dramatically different environ- 
ment — and a different problem — 
existed on 103rd Street, Spanish 
Harlem, in New York City. There, 
New York University Art Depart- 
ment students spent a summer 
researching and then, with local resi- 
dents, constructing "backyard" envi- 
ronments to meet the special needs 
and interests of these neighborhoods. 

As varied as the projects were, a 
common thread of enthusiasm and 
spontaneous community involve- 
ment ran through all. The original 
seed grants totalled $150,000 and 



averaged less than $1,000 per grant. 
The final estimated investment in 
these projects totalled more than $10 
million, money gained through pri- 
vate efforts to develop earned in- 
come, membership donations, and 
major public and private grants to 
continue the America the Beautiful 
Fund sponsored initiatives. 

"Creative talent sought," the Fund's 
flyer urged, and architects, planners, 
artists, designers, and ecologists 
came from throughout the country. 
They created a restoration plan for 
the oldest town in Tennessee, they 
started a summer artist-in-residence 
program in the Delaware Water Gap 
National Park, they designed a plaza 
to front on the historical Spanish 
Mission in San Luis Obispo, Cali- 
fornia, and they set up a University 
of Michigan student-staffed office 
of .Advocate Planning to aid local 
.Michigan residents in park planning 
and open space design for their 
communities. 

The .America the Beautiful Fund 
reports that $58,000 worth of seed 



money to projects in aesthetic design 
stimulated $6 million worth of addi- 
tional funding to execute the proj- 
ects. But what is more significant, 
they add, are the results those seed 
monies produced, which "attest to 
the value of aw akening young pro- 
fessionals and local groups to both 
the potential for raising the quality 
of their lives and their power to 
do it." 

Grantee: 

.America the Beautiful Fund 

Project Director: 

Paul Bruce Dow ling. Executive 

Director, .America the Beautiful 

Fund 



The 1858 market house in Annapolis, 
Maryland, has been saved from demoli- 
tion and restored zi'ith the aid of a seed 
grant. Drav:ing courtesy of America the 
Beautiful Fund. 



37 



Public Education and Awareness Increasing Public Au areness 



Main Street 



Main Street, U.S.A. — the architec- 
tural, commercial, and spiritual 
crossroads of our country's smaller 
communities — is threatened with 
extinction. Highways built by an 
automobile-oriented society, urban 
renewal, suburban sprawl, and 
shopping malls increasingly under- 
mine or siphon off the economic and 
social lifeblood of these older down- 
town areas. Not only are tax bases 
eroded, but the living heritage of our 
communities is being dismantled or 
left to decay. 

Responding to a growing number of 
requests from communities seeking 
w ays to revitalize and save their 
downtown areas, the National Trust 
tor I listoric Preservation initiated 
the .Main Street Project. The 
National Trust is a nonprofit pri\ ate 
membership organization created to 
enci)urage the preservation and reuse 
of .America's hi.storic and cultural 
heritage. In the Main Street Project, 
preservation and enhancement of 
historic structures are seen as the 
keys to a dow ntown's economic 
recovery. Linking design and busi- 



ness impro\ ement, preserx ation 
with commercial revitalization, the 
Main Street Project helps small 
towns develop strategies for the eco- 
nomic and physical enhancement of 
their older downtow ns. Ihe project 
does not include money for actual 
rehabilitation, but rather provides a 
support system ot economic and 
design consultants w ho work closely 
w ith local business people and com- 
munity leaders to devi.se revitaliza- 
tion strategies. 

Since 1976, the National Trust has 
v\ orked with three demonstration 
communities (Hot Springs, South 
Dakota; Madison, Indiana; and 
Galesburg, Illinois) competitively 
selected from more than seventy 
applicants to represent the kinds of 
problems faced by many small tow ns 
and cities throughout the United 
States. .\lultidisciplinar\' teams of 
consultants worked w ith project 
managers living in the communities 
and w ith local business people and 
residents to map out revitalization 
plans. Combining the expertise of a 
professional staff with the energies 



and experience of concerned citizens 
has produced impressive results. 

Since the Endowment's initial 
$20,000 grant launched the Main 
Street Project in 1976, more than 
$1 million in additional support has 
been contributed by foundations, 
corporations, and local donors in the 
three pilot communities. Constant 
economic monitoring by the pro- 
gram indicates that the project has 
leveraged investment at a rate often 
to one in participating communities. 
Buildings have been rehabilitated, 
exteriors restored, graphics updated, 
store vacancies filled, business tech- 
niques improved, and civic spirits 
raised. Preliminary assessment 
points to the project's ability to 
retain jobs, prevent decay, and cre- 
ate a climate of confidence and eco- 
nomic stability conducix e to private 
investment, all for suprisingly little 
overall cost. 

Of equal importance with the physi- 
cal results has been the nurturing of 
local capabilities and leadership in all 
three demonstration communities to 



continue the process after the Trust's 
on-site involvement ends. The project 
has focused on building community- 
wide appreciation of the downtown 
area and a group decision-making 
capacity. Incremental but percepti- 
ble change is the goal. 

The National Trust shares the 
results of its Main Street Project and 
recommends strategies to other com- 
munities through a film, "Main 
Street," conferences, infomiation 
sheets, and The Main Street Book, 
scheduled for publication in 1981. 

The National Trust has created a 
National Main Street Center in 
Washington, D.C., with funding 
from the Endow ment, the Depart- 
ment of Tlousing and Urban Devel- 
opment, and other public agencies to 
provide a central information service 
to states and communities interested 
in the revitalization of their down- 
towns. The Center's immediate pri- 
mary goal is the development of 
comprehensive state strategies 
through the creation of several ukkIcI 
state programs. Initially the Center 
is concentrating on assi.sting cities 



38 




with populations under 50,000 and 
providing an arena for the discussion 
and evaluation of downtown re\ ital- 
ization efforts by the private invest- 
ment communitv and all levels of 
government. 

Grantee: 

National Trust for Historic 

Preser\ation, Midwest Office 

Project Director: 

Mar\' C. Means, Regional Director 

Participants: 

Susan Gather, Sylvia Fergus Miller, 

Scott Gerloff, Clark Schoettle, Tom 

Moriarity, Yvonne Turner; Shlaes & 

Company, economic consultants; 

Preser\ation/Urban Design, Inc., 

Miller Wihry & Lee, Susan Jackson 

Keig, Hengle Berg &Associates, 

Coney and Dahl, design; John 

Karol, film producer 



Celebrations in City Places 

There \\ as dancing in the streets of 
Tulsa and Little Rock when Marilyn 
Wood and the Celebrations Group of 
New York came to town in 1975. 

1 he artists of the Celebrations 
Group had obtained an Endowment 
grant to collaborate with local artists 
of various disciplines and their stu- 
dents to bring sections of downtown 
Tulsa (Oklahoma) and Little Rock 
(Arkansas) to life w ith public per- 
formances that drew in passers-by as 
participants. The week-long celebra- 
tions included fire-escape dances, 
banner parades, plaza choreography, 
and evening exhibitions of sky- 
launch sculpture. 

Since the 1975 residencies, the open- 
ended celebration as a way to 
enliven public spaces has been 
adopted by other American com- 
munities, as well as communities in 
.Australia, Iran, and Japan. 

Grantee: 

Marilyn Wood and the Celebrations 

Group 



Project Director: 

Marilyn Wood 

Participants: 

Twelve artists working w ith up to 

one hundred artists, art students, 

and others from the local community 

in each city 

1,2 

Flute playing and flag waving are 

among the ingredients of a Celebrations 

Group production . 

3 

Afire escape turned dance floor in Tulsa, 

Oklahoma. Photographs by Marilyn 

U ood. 



39 



Public bxlucation and Au arencss 



Increasing Public Au arcness 




Design Michigan 



The notion that design is integral to 
the quality of everyday life and busi- 
ness has been pervasively regarded 
as a frixolous notion in the United 
States. Only recently has that notion 
begun slowly to change as graphic 
ilesign standards and comprehensive 
design programs are implemented by 
go\ ernment agencies in Washington 
and as businesses gradually realize 
that the visual image they present to 
clients and employees is of more 
than secondary public relations 
importance. 

One ot the most ambitious programs 
undertaken to demonstrate the inte- 
gral role of design in the pursuit of 
environmental and cultural excel- 
lence is Design Michigan, developed 
jointly by theOanbrook Academy 
of Art and the Michigan (Council 
for the Arts, with fimding from the 
National Kndowment. The program 
seeks to improve the qualitv of life in 
the state by impro\ ing the public's 
understanding of the \alue of gocni 
design. It offers a coordinated pro- 
gram of design criteria and standards 
to individuals and groups in busi- 



ness, government, and labor. Design 
Michigan extends considerations of 
design to \\ ide-ranging applications 
— from printed communications, 
signage and architectural graphics, 
landscape architecture, and interior 
design to educational programs tor 
intermediate schools and programs 
offering strategics for preserx ing and 
revitalizing communities. 

Since its inception in 1974, Design 
Michiuan has held conferences otter- 
ing instruction to government offi- 
cials involved in design decisions on 
solving design problems and serving 
as an informed client and purchaser 
of architectural, landscape, interior, 
and graphic tiesign services. Design 
Michigan has held an assembly for 
go\ ernment and business people on 
en\ ironmental design topics — 
energy, conservation, the efficient 
use of economic and human 
resources, and the political impacts 
of design. And it has held a state- 
wide conference for community 
officials, planners, developers, and 
citizens on wavs to preserve, rehabili- 
tate, anil re\ italize communities. 



Design .Michigan has also developed 
an educational program, which has 
won two national design aw ards, 
that engages students in analyzing 
and sol\ ing design problems in their 
ow n en\ ironment. As an outgrow th 
of the program, the Cranbrook 
Research CI roup has been formed to 
undertake specific projects for public 
organizations and government. 

.\s befits a design communication 
program of this breadth. Design 
Michigan has a strong and w ell- 
defined graphic component. A series 
of posters explain the program's cri- 
teria: efficient design to sa\ e energy 
and resources, design that is infor- 
mati\ e and compatil)le to its sur- 
roundings, and design responsive to 
changing human needs. 

(irantee: 

Oanbrook Academy of Art 

Project Coordinator: 

Jack \\ illiamson 

Participants: 

Oanbrook Design Department; 

Michigan Clouncil for the Arts 

l',n\ ironmental Arts Panel; (Design 



.Michigan \d\isorv Board) John 
Berr\', Robert Blaich, James (Craw- 
ford, Anthonv Foust, Katherine 
McCoy, .Michael .McCoy, Richard 
Richards, Joan Shantz, Roy Slade, 
Robert Yares 

/ 

An exhibition as part of the Design Mich- 
igan program to promote public aware- 
ness throughout the state of the usefulness 
and effectiveness of good design. Photo- 
graph by Cranbrook Academy, Design 
Michigan team. 



40 




A Graphics System for Greenway 



Boston 200 Discoverv Network 



Prior to 1978, Greenway — Denver, 
Colorado's nationally acclaimed 
urban corridor — had no signage to 
lead recreation enthusiasts through 
its series of parks, boat landings, and 
recreation areas linked by a contin- 
uous biking-hiking trail that runs 
the length of the river throughout 
the city. 

Using an Arts Kndow ment grant for 
seed money, the Platte River Green- 
way Foundation designed a graphics 
and sign system for Greenw ay and 
raised an additional $12,000 in pri- 
vate contributions to fund its con- 
struction and installation. 

The system, which is maintained 
with the aid of private funds by the 
Denver Parks Department and a 
crew of trail rangers, is comprised of 
directional, street, and interpretative 
signage that provides infomiation 
about the river environment and its 
histon,-. The signage is supple- 
mented by murals w hich are 
designed by local artists and are 
painted on a bridge abutment and 
industrial facades along the river. 



Grantee: 

The Platte River Greenway 
Foundation 
(Chairman: 
Joe Shoemaker 
Participants: 

(Principal development coordina- 
tion) Urban Kdges Corp. — Robert 
Seams, Rick Lamoreaux, Joan 
.Mason; City and County of Denver 
(.Mayor's Office); lim Thies, 
graphic artist; I Om Horan and 
Associates, sign printers; (.Muralists) 
James Farrell, James Chappell, 
Carlos Sandaval, .Manuel .Martinez, 
Kip Ferris, .Moore School students; 
City of Denver Parks and Sign 
Shops departments; John .\nder.son 
and .Associates, Greenway logo 
design; Barry Rose, ceramic mural- 
ist; Sun \ alley — Los Casitas resi- 
dents, mural execution 

1 

Weir Gulch mural, one of several murals 
painted on buildings along the Greenway. 
Photography by Platte River Greenway 
Foundation. 



Boston's bicentennial theme, "The 
City Is the Exhibit," emphasized the 
qualities that make its urban envi- 
ronment exciting. .\ 197 .S .\rts 
Endow ment aw ard supported the 
efforts of the mayor's bicentennial 
committee, Boston 200, to develop a 
city wide network of paths, informa- 
tion kiosks, and site markers as aids 
to vi.sitors and residents in their dis- 
coverv of Boston. 

Extensive research w as undertaken, 
neighborhood by neighborhood, to 
uncover Boston's most significant 
activities and historic sites. Boston 
200 then developed pictorial "talk- 
ing" maps to communicate this infor- 
mation to the public. 

Four years after the Bicentennial cel- 
ebration, the netw ork continues to 
encourage sightseers to explore areas 
of Boston they might otherw ise over- 
look. 

Grantee: 
Boston 200 
Executive Director: 
Katherine D. Kane 



Project Director: 

Bet.sy Earls 

Participants: 

.Michael and Susan Southworth, 

project research, design, planning; 

community participants 



41 



Public Education and Awareness 



Increasing Public \\\ areness 




Footnotes 

Footnotes, a series of publications 
developed by the Institute for F2nvi- 
ronmental Action in New York 
with partial Kndowment funding, 
describes traffic-control strategies 
for improving the pedestrian envi- 
ronment in downtown districts. I he 
books are directed at city officials, 
professional planners and designers, 
educators in urban affairs, and lay- 
men interested in environmental 
improvement. 

Footnotes One: A Handbook for Pedes- 
trian Action informs professionals of 
ways to improve the quality of the 
urban en\ ironment. Footnotes Two: 
The Rediscovery of the Pedestrian 
appraises pedestrian planning and 
design in twelve European cities. 
The impact of pedestrian streets on 
the process of renewal and revitaliza- 
tion is the subject of Footnotes Three: 
Banning the Car Downtown. A refer- 
ence guide to over fifty North 
American pedestrian experiments. 
Footnotes Four: American Urban Malls, 
A Compendium provides statistics on 
financing, legislation, and technical 
considerations for each mall cited. 



Grantee: 

Institute for Environmental Action 

Project Directors: 

Ciianni Longo and Roberto 

Brambilla 

Participants: 

Virginia Dzurinko, administrative 

coordinator; Ingrid Bengis, editor; 

.Marguerite \ illecco, editorial 

consultant 

The Footnotes series is published by 
the Institute for Environmental 
.\ction, New York, New York. 



More Streets for People 

".More Streets for People" is a multi- 
media, public education program 
that documents the impact of pedes- 
trian streets on human behavior and 
the urban environment in \ arious 
cities around the \\ orld. 

The exhibit, a product of New 
York's Institute for l-,n\ ironmental 
.\ction and supported in part by the 
.Arts Endow ment, includes a travel- 
ing tent theater, complete \\ ith an 
eleven-minute multi-screen audiovi- 
sual presentation, a videotape show , 
and a photomural exhibition provid- 
ing visitors with basic infomiation 
on how their environment can be 
improved and how citizens them- 
sel\ es can be instrumental in effect- 
ing urban grow th and change. 

.As an outcome of the exhibit, the 
Institute for Environmental Action 
was asked to coordinate the U Orld 
Environment Day Urban Demon- 
stration Program in \ ancou\ er as 
part of the L.N. I labitat Conference 
on Human Settlements, 1976. The 
international program assistetl 136 
cities in organizing a series of experi- 



mental street closings on June 5, 
1976, World Environment Day. Ihe 
"More Streets for People" pavilion 
served as the information terminal 
for the monitored results of the 
street -closing experiment. 

Grantee: 

Institute for En\ ironmental Action 

Project Directors: 

Roberto Brambilla, (iianni Longo, 

Igor Jozsa 

Participants: 

\ irginia Dzurinko, administrative 

coordinator; .Mimi I aufer, graphic 

design coordinator; Guy Billout, 

graphic consultant 



The exhibit ''More Streets for People " at 
Bryant Park in midtown Manhattan. 
The exhibition system includes a tent- 
theater of approximately 1,000 square 
feet equipped for synchronized multi-slide 
projections with soundtrack, a three- 
dimensional aluminum structurefor pho- 
tomural exhibitions, a portable unit for 
the display ofvideoprograms, and a stage 
for open air performances. Photography 
by Roberto Brambilla. 



42 




Social Life of Small Urban Spaces 

For a number of years, William 
VVhyte spent most of his time stand- 
ing around street corners and plazas 
in New York, watching the world go 
by and spying on friends, lovers, and 
businessmen. 

No, Whyte is not a \oyeur, nor a 
private detective, nor a bum or a 
dropout. While ostensibly loitering, 
he was actually working to improve 
the quality of life of New Yorkers, 
and of city dwellers everywhere, 
through a people-oriented design of 
urban space. 

It all started about ten years ago 
when Whyte, founder and director 
of New York's Street Life Project, 
noticed something that didn't make 
sense. Since the early 1960s, corpo- 
rations had been constructing plazas 
along with their new buildings in 
exchange for the right to extra com- 
mercial space, yet many of these 
plazas were scarcely or never used. 
At the same time, people continued 
to converge in what appeared to be 
less desirable (e.g., smaller, noisier) 
areas. 



In an attempt to find out why, 
Whyte began studying the way peo- 
ple use the playgrounds, parks, and 
streets of the city. Usage, he found, 
was directly related to the way a 
space w as designed and whether 
it had certain "amenities" that 
appealed to people. Because the 
kinds of designs that worked and the 
kinds that didn't could be described 
with fair accuracy, Whyte thought 
that some standards for good plaza 
design should be incorporated into 
the city's zoning code. New York's 
planning commission told Whyte 
that if he could document his claims 
and define common denominators of 
success for urban spaces, changes in 
the zoning code could be made. 

Faced with a rare opportunity to vir- 
tually write the parameters for urban 
space planning, Whyte and his asso- 
ciates, using time-lapse and tele- 
photo photography, began to chart 
ever\'thing about plazas from traffic 
flow and pastimes to sun angles. The 
resulting films show that plazas 
which work have lots of flexible, 
open seating (ledges, steps, and mo\ - 



able chairs rather than benches), are 
accessible to the street and shops, 
attract a "mixed clientele," and are 
tolerant of street vendors and enter- 
tainers. These films are the basis of 
an extensive education program for 
city officials, planners, architects, 
and civic groups, have caused the 
New York City zoning guidelines to 
be rewritten, existing non-uorking 
spaces to be overhauled, and 
dynamic new ones to be created. 
The findings and methods of the 
entire project have just been pub- 
lished as a handbook for other cities 
under the title. The Social Life of Small 
Urban Spaces. 

Grantee: 

National Recreation and Park 

Association 

Project Director: 

William H. \\'hyte, Fhe Street Life 

Program 

Participants: 

Marilyn Russell, Nancy Linday 

The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, 
published by the Conser\ation 
Foundation, Washington, D.C. 



/ 

Gus, the vendor ivho can be found day 

after day, year after year at the comer of 

Park Avenue and 52nd Street, is a big 

contributor to the success ofNev: York's 

Seagram's Plaza. Photographs by 

William H. Whyte. 

2 

In stark contrast is one of the many plazas 

surrounding office buildings constructed 

since 1961 in pro forma compliance 

with New York zoning regulations. 



43 



Public Exlucation and Awareness 



Increasing Public Aw areness 




Reusing Railroad Stations 

Railway termini and hotels are to the 
nineteenth century what monasteries and 
cathedrals were to the thirteenth century. 
They are truly the only real representa- 
tive building we possess. . . Our metropoli- 
tan termini have been the leaders of the 
art spirit of our time. 
Building News, 1875 

America's first railway station was 
built in Baltimore, Maryland, about 
1H3(). During the next 120 years 
more than forty thousanti passenger 
stations were built across the coun- 
try. Symbols of the railroads' pros- 
perity and power during the late 
nineteenth and early tw entieth cen- 
turies, these stations were often 
extravagant and monumental 
structures, designed by some of 
America's leading architects. Built to 
last, pas.senger stations incorporated 
inventive solutions to the new prob- 
lems of design posed by the need for 
larger structures housing a multiplic- 
ity of activities by hundreds of thou- 
sands of people moving in different 
directions. The many opulent sta- 
tions built in larger cities also 
reflected the competition between 



rival railroad companies, while an 
impressive terminal in a smaller 
tow n w as interpreted as a requisite 
sign ot ci\ ic well-being. 

By the early 1970s, however, rail- 
road stations had become an "endan- 
gered species" in the United States. 
Less than half of the forty thousand 
stations built during the railroad's 
golden age had sur\ ived the 
w recker's ball; hundreds were sched- 
uletl for demolition and thousantls 
left vacant and vulnerable to abuse 
by vandals. The reason for such 
large scale abandonment of these sta- 
tions was, of course, the precipitous 
decline in passenger traffic by rail 
and the resulting financial plight of 
the railroad indu.stry. 

Recognizing the urgent need for 
action to save America's legacy of 
railroad stations. Educational Facili- 
ties Laboratories (LFL) launched a 
multi-stage effort in 1973 to make the 
general public, government officials, 
planners, and architects aw are of 
these stations' architectural signifi- 
cance and potential for reuse, espe- 



cially as cornerstones tor dow ntow n 
renewal. Elducational Facilities Lab- 
oratories (now a division of the 
Academy for Educational Develop- 
ment, or AED) is a nonprofit organi- 
zation established in 1958 by I he 
Ford Foundation. With support 
from the I'.ntlow ment, EFL's public 
aw areness and technical assistance 
efforts resulted in the publication 
and distribution of two books docu- 
menting w avs of adapting old and 
unused railroad stations tocontem- 
porar\- needs while preser\ ing them 
as a significant part of America's 
architectural heritage. In conjunc- 
tion w ith the Endow ment, EEL 
sponsored a conference on this sul)- 
ject in Indianapolis in 19~4, and 
commissioned a film, "Stations," and 
a poster, "Stations: An Endangered 
Species," which received wide distri- 
bution and is in the permanent col- 
lections of .several museums. 

EF'Lmet its objective: railroad sta- 
tions are no longer a threatened 
building type. IVxlay the (K'cupants 
of many of these depots and termi- 
nals are as diverse as their architec- 



tural .styles: banks, restaurants, art 
centers and museums, private busi- 
nesses, and schools. As these stations 
are often located in a busy part of 
tow n, they are natural homes for 
commercial enterprises as w ell as 
public and private activities. Con- 
gressional initiatives, especially 
those taken by (congressman Frank 

Thompson of New Jersey, and the 
de\ elopment of such fetleral pro- 
grams as the Department of 

I ransportations station conser\a- 
tion and intermodal transportation 
center programs help ensure 
continued recognition of the plight 
of our railroad stations and increasetl 
sources of financial support tor sav- 
ing them. 

Grantee: 

Exiucational Facilities Laboratories/ 

Academy for Educational 

Development 

Project Director (study): 

Alan C. Cireen 

Project Director (film): 

Roger Ilagen 

Participants: 

Norman Pfeiffer, Hardy Holzman 



44 



Recycling Streets 



Courthouse Conservation 



Pfeiffer; Peter Green, EFL editor; 
Michel Goldberg, graphic designer 

Reusing Railroad Stations and Reusing 
Railroad Stations, Book Two, pub- 
lished by Educational Facilities Lab- 
oratories, 1974, $4.00 per copy. 



Pennsylvania Station in New York is one 
of the many significant stations to suc- 
cumb to the wreckers hall. Photograph 
by Norman McGrath. 



Neighborhood organizing loses 
much ot its intimidating complexity 
w hen packaged simply and enthusi- 
astically in a step-by-step "do-it- 
yourself" guide. 

Jack Sidener, w ho teaches architec- 
ture at the University ot Washington 
in Seattle, has studied how planned 
community efforts to re-route neigh- 
borhood traffic can significantly 
reduce the amount of land claimed by 
asphalt and add space for public use. 
From his studies Sidener has pro- 
duced two well-designed pamphlets 
outlining the strategies local com- 
munities can follow to make changes 
in their neighborhoods. He describes 
how to engage the assistance of local 
planners and government officials, 
and how to gain the cooperation ot 
neighborhood residents. His pam- 
phlets, "Recycling Streets" and 
"Recycling Streets Workshop," guide 
and inspire neighborhood residents 
w ho desire to take responsibility tor 
the quality of their communities. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Jack Sidener 



In more than one thousand Ameri- 
can communities, the country court- 
house stands as the most prominent 
physical and symbolic landmark. 
Yet many of these buildings have 
tjeen abandoned because of poor 
maintenance or demolisheil because 
of poor space planning. 

In an effort to spare remaining court- 
houses from a similar fate, in 1974 
architect Ben W'eese obtained 
Endow ment funds to de\ elop model 
space management strategies for this 
important building type. Working 
closely w ith the Midw est office of 
the National Trust for I listoric Pres- 
ervation, W'eese led teams of stu- 
dents from the School of .Architec- 
ture at the University of Illinois, 
Chicago, w ho intensively studied 
nine typical courthouses, all of 
which w ere found to be adaptable 
for nKxIern needs. 

The courthouse studies prompted 
additional Endowment support for a 
national conference on courthouse 
preser\ ation in 1976, and the publi- 
cation of A Courthouse Conservation 



Handbook, which has l)een instru- 
mental in persuatling public and pri- 
vate groups to ren<)\ ate many court- 
houses around the country. 

Grantees: 

National Trtist for I listoric Preser- 
vation, Midwest Office/Ben W eese, 
FAIA 

Project Directors: 
.Mary C. .Means and Ben \\ eese 
Participants: 

I larry W eese and Associates; 
National Clearinghou.se for Criminal 
Justice Planning and Architecture; 
(Circle School of Architecture, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Chicago 



45 



Public Education and Aw arcness 



Increasing Public \\\ areness 







H^^3|^^nlHy| 




^ ' ~ . -^ 


L^ 


-•^ 


mffHiSBtK^^- - '. 



'A Measure of Change' 



Teaching people how to improve the 
quality of their built environment is the 
purpose of three projects undertaken by 
Vision, The Center for Environmental 
Design and Education. The film 
"^ Measure of Change''; a built- 
environment education program for chil- 
dren, "Street Smart"; and urban design 
services for five New England towns have 
introduced new community-development 
strategies for citizen participation, com- 
munication, and urban design techniques. 



"A Measure of Change" is a tvventy- 
eight-minute color film that docu- 
ments the struggle over urban 
renewal in dou ntov\ n Nev\ burvport, 
Massachusetts. The film chronicles 
citizen perceptions of urban redevel- 
opment in a town that has some of 
the finest Federal commercial build- 
ings in the country. The original 
plans for downtown revitalization 
called for standard demolition and 
new construction that would have 
reduced the heart of the old city to a 
cinderblock supermarket and a park- 
ing lot. Citizen intervention eventu- 
ally changed the plan to one of reno- 
vating and reusing six blocks around 
Market Square and ensuring public 
access to the adjacent u aterfront. 

"A Measure of Change" assesses the 
issues of design review, the environ- 
mental impact of new construction, 
and public access to the waterfront. 
It examines the existing brick and 
granite composition of Market 
Square and defines those elements as 
the visual components of the dow n- 
town. I'hat established character 
becomes the yardstick for measuring 



the aesthetic impact of new construc- 
tion. The film uses the juxtaposition 
of old photographs, graphic abstracts 
of changes in downtown density, 
and the successive patterns of water- 
front development to explain the 
rationale for design regulation and 
public interest in new development. 
Interx iews with tow n officials, citi- 
zen activists, and an historian — each 
expressing different points of view — 
reveal the town's changing sensibili- 
ties about the value of old and his- 
toric buildings and the appropriate- 
ness of new construction and design. 

The film w on first prize in the 
Columbia University Urban Film 
Competition for a planning film in 
1975, blue ribbon at the 1977 Ameri- 
can Film Festival in New York, and 
w as one of five films to w in the 
National Trust for Historic Preser- 
vation's film competition in 1977. It 
w as the only American film pre- 
sented at the Pinal Congress of Euro- 
pean Architectural Heritage Year in 
Amsterdam in 1975. 



Executive Producer: 

Ronald Lee Fleming 

Produced by: 

Urbanimage Corporation 

\\ riter/Producer/Director: 

Law rence Rosen blum 

Editor: 

Polly Bennell 

Camera: 

Law rence Rosenblum, 

Austin De Besche 

Graphics: 

Jim Gabriel 

Music: 

Jonathan Helfand 



Newburyport, Massachusetts at the turn 
of the century. Photograph courtesy of 
Vision, Inc. 



46 





"Street Smart" 



Five New England Towns 



"Street Smart" is an audio-visual 
program about the built environ- 
ment for elementary and middle 
school children. The program 
includes filmstrips, posters, and an 
activity guide to provide teachers 
with catalysts for helping children 
explore, discover, and interpret the 
built environment. 

The "Street Smart" program intro- 
duces children to the enormous 
resources in their cities and towns 
and encourages them to become 
advocates for positive change in their 
communities. The components of the 
"Street Smart" program correspond 
to the stages in the problem-solving 
process— awareness, observation, 
information gathering, analysis, 
alternatives selection, and environ- 
mental action. 

"Street Smart" has been developed 
by a team of educators, designers, 
historians, and classroom teachers 
from New England under the direc- 
tion of Vision, Inc., whose initial 
$10,000 Endowment grant leveraged 
an additional $118,000 from a num- 



ber of federal agencies and founda- 
tions to produce the program. 

Etiucation Director: 

Joyce Meschan, President, 

Vision, Inc. 

Design Director: 

Michael Robinson, Vice President, 

Vision, Inc. 

Technical Producer: 

Cynthia J. Lax 

Illustrator: 

Marc Brown 

Research: 

Francis Joseph Gyra, Jr. , Susan 

Hubbard, Richard Balaban, 

Nancy Brennan, Eileen McGrath 

Rockefeller 

Technical Assistance: 

Michael Dowling, John Tata, 

Betty Pitterm an, Jerry Spearman, 

Pete Levin, Jonathan Barker, 

Stephen Wheeler 

/ 

Filming ''Street Smart !' 
2 

A child becoming streetsmart. Photogra- 
phy by Michael Robinson. 



Middlebury, Vermont; York, 
Maine; Warren, Rhode Island; 
Plymouth and Southbridge, Massa- 
chusetts. All five New England 
towns have fine environmental quali- 
ties worth preserving; none had the 
financial resources to hire profes- 
sional services to preserve or adapt 
these qualities to community needs. 
In 1975, Vision, Inc. applied to the 
Endowment for a grant to develop 
public education and awareness tools 
and design services for each commu- 
nity. A $15,000 grant provided the 
five New England towns with seed 
money, which local sources matched 
two to one to expand the scope of 
planning and design projects. 

The $3,000 in design services allot- 
ted to each tow n cnal)Ied \ ision to 
develop public education tools that 
became instrumental in implement- 
ing projects in each community. For 
example, in Plymouth, Massachu- 
setts, Vision's work helped defeat a 
"grandfather" clause in the tow n's 
sign code. Warren, Rhcxlc Island, 
raised $428,000 for public improve- 
ments such as brick sidewalks, street 



trees, and furniture. Middlebury, 
Vermont, leveraged funds for a 
study proposing the reuse of an old 
mill as a cultural facility. .\nd 
Southbridge, Massachusetts, which 
raised $550,000 to revitalize its 
downtown, recei\ ed an Ail-American 
Cities Award in 1978-79. 

Participants: 

\ ision, Ihe Center for Environmen- 
tal Design and Education; public 
officials and community volunteers 
from each of the five towns — 
Middlebur)', \ crmont; South- 
bridge, Massachusetts; Warren, 
Rhode Island; Plymouth, Massachu- 
setts; York, .Maine 

".\ Measure of Change," "Street 

Smart," and Five New Flngland 

Tow ns w ere undertaken by \ ision. 

The Center for Environmental 

Design and Education, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts. 

Joyce Meschan, President 

I 

Proposed redevelopment for Middlebury, 

Vermont. Photograph f)i Vision, Inc. 



47 



Public Education and Awareness 



Increasing Public Awareness 




Risorgimento 

Hidden in downtown Jersey City, 
New Jersey, lies the Italian Village, 
a compact, t\\ entv-block neighbor- 
hood that four years ago seemed on 
the verge of collapse from failed 
urban renew al and the exodus of res- 
idents to the suburbs. 

Today, thanks to three volunteers 
working through the community 
group, V illage Italian Americans 
Take Action (VriA), and a small 
grant from the Kndow mcnt, the Ital- 
ian Village has experienced risorgi- 
mento — a resurgence of pride and 
activity. Through a combination of 
small-scale projects such as planting 
flower boxes anil painting murals on 
graffiti-covered walls, \ TIA has 
restored the community's self- 
confidence and pride. Colorful 
murals, new signage, and other im- 
pro\ emcnts to the storefronts have 
attracted newcomers to the Village, 
where storekeepers, in keeping w ith 
tradition, still provide high-quality 
goods, specialty items, and friendly 
service. Risorgimento has given the 
community the impetus to begin a 
substantial rebuilding program. 



Grantees: 

Village Italian Americans Take 
Action/(>ity of Jersey City 
Kxecutive Director: 
Tony Nicodemo 
Project Director: 
Jack R. Stokvis 
Participants: 

Martin Hollow ay, graphic designer; 
community volunteers, neighbor- 
h(Kxl businesses, art departments 
from Kean (College, J.C. State Col- 
lege, Ferris 

/ 

''Risorgimento" in Jersey City's Italian 

Village. Photograph by Ken Korotkin. 



Neighborhood Conser\ ation 
Nationw ide 

In 1977, the National Trust for His- 
toric Preservation established, with 
Kndow ment support, a national 
clearinghouse tor neigh borho<xi con- 
ser\ ation projects; w ithin a year it 
became a major resource for citizens' 
groups across the country. 

Numerous neighborhood conserva- 
tion groups have been formed 
throughout the United States in 
recent years, and the National Trust 
believed that conservation efforts 
v\ere being hindered by a lack of 
communication between them. To 
redress this omission, the Trust 
began publication ot Conserve Neigh- 
borhoods, a free bi-monthly newslet- 
ter that describes projects under- 
taken by neighborhood conserv ation 
groups, pro\ ides advice on public 
relations and fund-raising, and iden- 
tifies available resources. 

The National Trust now operates 
the NcighborhocKl ('onser\ ation 
program v\ith the aid of corporate 
and foundation grants. 



Grantee: 

National Trust for Historic Preser- 
vation, Neighborhood Conservation 
Office 
President: 
Jimmy Hiddle 
Project Director: 
I lenrv McC^artney 
Participants: 

Maureen Ferris Pepson, researcher/ 
secretary; student interns and volun- 
teers; The Preservation Press, edit- 
ing assistance — Conserve Neighbor- 
hoods; Trust Regional/Field Offices 



48 




Revitalizing Worcester 



The revitalization of a city requires 
the involvement of a broad spectrum 
of private citizens, community orga- 
nizations, and agencies. Realizing 
that public education and awareness 
are key to this participation, the 
Worcester Heritage Preserv ation 
Society engaged the services of 
\'ision, The Center for Environmen- 
tal Design and Education of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, to direct and 
stimulate community interest in its 
upcoming revitalization program. 

With the aid of a small Arts Endow- 
ment grant, Vision developed a 
poster entitled "Worcester: A New 
P^ngland Cityscape," to define the 
elements of a streetscape, explain the 
revitalization process, and inform 
interested citizens about participat- 
ing agencies and organizations. Suc- 
ceeding the poster was the publica- 
tion of a booklet by the same name, 
which provided its readers with 
design guidelines for revitalization 
and recommended specific projects 
that would enhance downtown 
Worcester by capitalizing on older 
physical assets and introducing com- 



patible new amenities to this Massa- 
chusetts manufacturing town. 

Grantee: 

Worcester Heritage Preservation 
Society 

F^xecutive Director: 
Janet McCorison 
Participants: 

William Densmore, Charles S. Aler- 
cer; (The City of Worcester) 
Thomas J. Early, Mayor; ErancisJ. 
McGrath, City Manager; William J. 
Mulford, Director, City Manager's 
Office of Planning and Community 
Development; the City Council; 
Vision, the Center for Environmen- 
tal Design and Education, consultant 



Worcester, Massachusetts, at the turn of 
the century. Photograph courtesy of 
Vision, Inc. 



49 



Public ExJucation and Awareness 



Educational Programs 




Mid-Career Fellowships 

Beginning in 1975, and each year 
subsequently, the American Acad- 
emy in Rome has awarded four fel- 
low ships ot six months, duration each 
to established professionals in the 
fields of architecture, landscape 
architecture, and design for the pur- 
pose of enabling them to take time 
off in mid-career to pursue indepen- 
dent studies related to their profes- 
sions. I hese Mid-Career Fellow- 
ships are sponsored by the National 
Endowment for the Arts. 

The fellowships expand the program 
of the American Academy in Rome, 
which is a private institution char- 
tered by the Congress of the United 
States in 1905 to provide working 
and living facilities for American art- 
ists and scholars within two schools: 
Fine Arts and Classical Studies. 

The diversity of pursuits undertaken 
by the Mid-Career Fellows and the 
common richness of their experi- 
ences is exemplified by comments 
made by three of the 1978 fellows in 
letters to .\merican Academy Presi- 
dent Bill N. Lacy. 



Michael Lax, an industrial designer 
in New York, intended to use his fel- 
lowship to pursue a work program 
that applied his interest in glass and 
ceramic techniques to consumer 
prwiucts. The city of Rome, how- 
ever, provided Lax with "unex- 
pected surprises and satisfactions" 
that caused him to alter his work 
program to consider glass as a build- 
ing material and to entertain the con- 
cept of staircases as sculptural ele- 
ments, prompted l)y their \ aried and 
skillfully designed presence through- 
out the Italian city. 

Landscape architect Peter Rolland, 
like Lax, w as unprepared for the 
richness of Rome and the stimulation 
of the Academy. He found the city 
"with its spaces, textures, mo\ e- 
ments, ever-changing light, [and] 
materials" so absorbing that he 
altered a program of photographic 
study and an itinerary that included 
Fgypt and Creece to concentrate 
on Italy, in order to partake in the 
intellectual stimulation pro\ ided by 
the Academy's Fellow s, \ isiting 
Scholars, and guests, he made the 



Academy his home base. In addition 
to "re-sensitizing myself to. . . the 
beauties and concern of detail, [and] 
mo\ement. . .ot Italian architecture 
and art," Rolland is incorporating his 
photographic studies into his course 
w ork at Yale. 

Common to the experiences of all the 
.\lid-Career Fellow s is their surprise 
at the unexpected stimulation offered 
by their host city. Ihe fascination of 
Rome and its contrast to the United 
States is eloquently expressed bv 
architect George Hartman, another 
1978 .Mid-Career Fellow: 

"Italian architecture is more often 
than not developed w ithin the most 

rigid constraints Yet, out ofthe.se 

limitations come the most astonish- 
ing richness and varietv of response. 
. . .1 he Italians tend to embellish 
and make the most out of necessities. 
A drive to work becomes a major 
road race, lunch becomes a two-hour 
banquet, clothing becomes an art 
form, and a two-week vacation be- 
comes the event of the year. The 
idea of focusing one's resources on a 



few things and developing them very 
seriously contrasts with the uniform 
dispersal of energy and attention 
more characteristic of .\mericans." 



Grantee: 

The American Academy in Rome 

Executive Secretar\': 

Ruth D. Green 

1 

Handhlown glass designed hy Michael 

Lax. Photograph by Michael Lax. 

2 

Pool for home designed by Peter Rolland, 

Westchester County, New York. 

3 

Earthforms, St. Mary's Monastery, New 

Jersey. Photographs by Peter Rolland. 



50 





Career Discovery Program 

Harvard University's Career Discov- 
ery Program is a comprehensive six- 
week introduction to the training, 
work, joys, and frustrations of pro- 
fessional careers in architecture, city 
and regional planning, and landscape 
architecture. Now entering its ninth 
year, this unique summer program is 
designed to meet the needs of per- 
sons exploring career possibilities or 
changes, whether they be eighteen 
or fifty-eight. 

Career Discovery combines studio 
work, field trips, lectures, and career 
counseling. Because the program is 
offered without academic credit, 
admission is based on evidence of the 
applicant's interest and need for an 
exploratory program in the design 
professions. Thus many participants 
who would not ordinarily find their 
way to the Harvard Graduate School 
of Design benefit from the school's 
faculty and visiting professors, as 
well as its graduate students who 
serve as instructors. 

Grantee: 

Harvard University 



Project Director: 

Paul Fishman, Director of Special 
Programs, Harvard Graduate School 
of Design 
Participants: 

Madeleine Robins, Coordinator, 
Career Discovery Program 1979; 
Carol Kort, Director of Public Infor- 
mation, Special Programs 

1 

Students in Harvard University's Career 
Discovery Program at work at the Grad- 
uate School of Design. Photography by 
Bonnie S. Burt. 



An Institute for Environmental 
Education 

In 1977, the x\rts Endowment 
funded the establishment of the 
Institute for Environmental ELduca- 
tion at the University of New 
Mexico's School of Architecture and 
Planning in Albuquerque. The Insti- 
tute was formed to train educators in 
environmental design in methods for 
schools, public institutions, and 
community groups to teach about 
the built environment and to design 
better indoor/outdoor learning envi- 
ronments. Since its inception, the 
Institute has been influential, nation- 
ally as well as in New Mexico; last 
May it persuaded the National Asso- 
ciation for Environmental Education 
to address the subject of built- 
environment education at its national 
conference. 

Grantee: 

University of New .Mexico 
Project Directors: 
Anne Taylor and Wolfgang Preiser 
Participants: 

Stephen Mao, graduate assistant; Hy 
and Joan Rosner, instructors and co- 
authors, .Mbuquerque Environmen- 
tal History; John Cox, Director, 



Environmental Exiucation, Albu- 
querque public schools; Donald 
Kelly, Chairman, Elementary Edu- 
cation; Morton Hoppenfeld, 
Dean, School of Architecture and 
Planning 

/ 

Learning about the built environment . 

Photography courtesy of University of 

New Mexico's Institute of Environmental 

Education. 



51 



Public ExJucation and Awareness Exlucational Programs 




Curriculum for Historic 
Preservation 

Although historians have acknowl- 
edged that a great nation's autobiog- 
raphy is written most clearly in its 
lasting art forms, there were few 
opportunities for formal graduate 
training in the preservation of Amer- 
ican architecture until 1974, when 
the History Department at the Uni- 
versity of Vermont developed a cur- 
riculum for a master's degree in His- 
toric Preservation with the aid of 
three grants from the Endowment. 

The program emphasizes the need to 
design a common value system for 
making decisions on preservation 
that would replace decision-making 
based on subjectivity, prejudice, and 
set answers. Fhe program's goals 
promote- recognition and respect for 
the diverse architectural contribu- 
tions made by each generation; foster 
an understanding of historic preser- 
vation as a method of impartial man- 
agement that tries to balance the 
values of varying architectural con- 
tributions; and encourages close rela- 
tionships between historic preserva- 
tion and other movements. 



Students develop an historical per- 
spective through the study of Ameri- 
can cultural history and architecture, 
acquire technical skills through spe- 
cialized courses, and participate in 
lectures designed to involve the com- 
munitv. Program alumni in fields 
ranging from architecture to eco- 
nomics are working around the 
country for business, government, 
and nonprofit organizations. 

I listoric preservation today is in its 
infancy; the University of Vermont 
program is making a vital contribu- 
tion toward fostering a society capa- 
ble of responsibly managing its own 
environmental heritage. 

(Jrantee: 

Department of History, University 
of Vermont 
Project Director: 
Chester H. Uiebs 
Participants: 
(University of Vermont) 
Departments of History and Arts, 
Fleming Museum; Vermont Council 
on the .\rts; New Hampshire Preser- 
vation Office 



1 

The University of Vermont's preservation 
work at Windsor ruin in Mississippi is 
typical of the fieldwork on built- 
environment projects nationwide that are 
an integral part of the program. Photo- 
graph by Chester H. Liebs. 



Space: Inside/Outside 

Space, architecture's major element, 
is the focus of a program developed 
by the Spencer Museum of Art of 
the University of Kansas, for junior 
high school students in the Law- 
rence, Kansas, school system. The 
program is designed to foster an aes- 
thetic awareness of the environment. 

Through classroom slide presenta- 
tions, museum tours, and other 
activities, students explore the 
arrangement of space, its psychologi- 
cal impact on the individual, and the 
varying motxis that space conveys. 
Problem-solving exercises are 
designed to stimulate students to dis- 
cover how space directly affects their 
sense of well-being. A portion of the 
classroom presentation draw s on 
examples from the students' own 
environment, while in the museum 
students apply the concepts they 
have learned to works of art. 

Grantee: 

The Spencer .Museum of Art, the 

University of Kansas 

Project Director: 

Dolo Brooking, Director of Museum 



52 




Education 
Participants: 

Karen Gould, co-author; Robert 
Gould, consultant; (Lawrence public 
school system) Dan Jaimes, Laurin 
Wilhelm, Gary Kroeger, Kathy von 
Ende; Frank E. Davis, Vice Presi- 
dent, Koppers, Co.; American Insti- 
tute of Architects; George Griffin, 
Spencer Research Library; Michael 
Ott and Christo, artists; Michael 
Neilson, design consultant; Docents 
of the Museum of Art 



Kids-Only Architecture 

"Somewhere between the ages of 
eight and eighteen, children quietly 
slip away from the arts, leaving 
behind untold talents." 

Nancy Renfro, director of "Kids- 
Only Architecture," an educational 
program that she has conducted for 
seven-to-twelve-year-olds in Penn- 
sylvania schools, believes that chil- 
dren should be encouraged to search 
their daydreams and incredible 
imaginations for solutions to uncon- 
ventional architectural projects. For 
example, she asks her students to 
imagine that an animal is going to 
move in next door, then asks, "What 
kind of house will he need?" Or she 
encourages them to think about their 
secret fantasies and create the perfect 
hide-away, or garden, or play- 
ground, or even solar energy house. 

To make room for the children's own 
creativity, Renfro uses few visual 
aids, remembering their susceptibil- 
ity to imitation. Instead, she sparks 
their work with animated verbal 
imagery. The results are fresh, 
entertaining, delightful — and even 



sobering. In 1977, the Smithsonian 
Institution sponsored an exhibition 
at the Renwick Gallery called "Kids 
As Architects," which celebrated 
some of the remarkable talents 
Renfro's workshops have nurtured. 

Grantee and Project Director: 

Nancy Renfro 

Participants: 

The children and staff of Easttown- 

Tredyffin School District and 

Westchester School District, 

Pennsylvania 



1 

An energy sunflower house. 
2 

Imagining a snug-a-bug house 
wheelchair-operated. 
3 

Imagining a snug-a-bug house ski- 
powered. Photographs by Nancy Renfro. 



53 



Public Education and Awareness 



Educational Programs 



A Building Education System 



Ours is a rapidly changing society — 
socially, politically, and environ- 
mentally—presenting us with prob- 
lems that demand sophistication, 
patience, and cooperation to solve. 
Problems faced by future genera- 
tions will not lend themselves to tra- 
ditional answers. Picking up where 
traditional education has left off, the 
City Building Education Program 
evolved to help children and adults, 
students and teachers, develop the 
skills and sensitivities they need to 
live in and improve their communi- 
ties and environment. 

The City Building Eklucation Sys- 
tem uses the concept of classroom as 
a city to integrate basic learning 
skills into a broad education in com- 
munity leadership. Ihe classroom 
becomes a microcosm of society, a 
living metaphor for all life's pro- 
cesses. As the classroom is redesigned 
as a living space, a working space, a 
space for the business of life, such 
traditional subjects as mathematics, 
reading, the arts, and language are 
employed to manage issues that 
arise. .-Xs students design and run the 



classroom-city, they look beyond its 
walls to learn about other organiza- 
tions — how people work together, 
making rules and handling the conse- 
quences of their decisions. The City 
Building Programs communicate 
concepts of leadership, compromise, 
and cooperation to students through 
their participation in exercises that 
simulate their relationships to 
objects, organizations, the commu- 
nity, and the environment. Ulti- 
mately, students begin to under- 
stand that everything happening in 
the classroom is also happening 
in the city, and to them. 

Endowment support in 1971 
launched the pilot ( Jty Building 
Education Program in three schools 
within the l>os Angeles Unified 
School District. Professionals from 
architecture, planning, design, and 
other related fields collaborated with 
three teachers, a program director, 
and one hundred elementar\- school 
children in the year-long experi- 
ment. Participants studied their 
cities and communities, gathering 
information about environmental 



implications for learning, thereby 
developing a form of alternative edu- 
cation. With professional assistance, 
classes drew maps and built models 
of their communities as they existed 
and as they might look in the future, 
based on projected needs. 

The Center for City Building Educa- 
tion \\ as established in 1974 as a non- 
profit corporation to develop an 
interdisciplinary alternative educa- 
tion system w ith an urban focus. 
Since the original pilot program in 
Los Angeles, elementary, second- 
ary, college, and graduate school 
programs have been developed in a 
variety of fields. In each case, the 
basic ( Jty Building activities are 
interpreted through the perspectives 
of consultants representing various 
professions. Teacher training, team 
teaching, and the use of academic 
professionals are crucial program ele- 
ments. The curriculum guide. City 
Building Educational Programs: Archi- 
tectural Consultant Edition, two slide 
presentations, and a film, "City 
Building: A \\ ay to Learn," docu- 
ment the various u ays in u hich 



design professionals can collal)orate 
with educators to involve people in 
community life while providing 
them with alternative, effective 
learning opportunities. 

Grantee: 

The Center for City Building Exluca- 
tional Programs 
Project Director: 

Doreen Nelson, Director, The Cen- 
ter for City Building Educational 
Programs 
Participants: 

J. Graham Sullivan, Deputy Super- 
intendent of Los Angeles City 
School District, .\rea D; 
Westminster Avenue Elementary 
School, \ enice; Brockton Avenue 
School, W est Los Angeles; Warner 
Avenue School, West I^)s Angeles; 
leri F"ox, documentation and pho- 
tography; Daniel Zimbaldi, photog- 
raphy; Deborah Berger and Henry 
Kahn, research; (Architects and 
planners) Daniel Benjamin, Rene 
Gould, Gregory Spiess; (Consult- 
ants) Charles Eames, Allan Gatzke, 
Erank O. Gehry, Ciilbert A. Stayner 



54 




Architects-in-Schools 



Participatory Design 



The Architects-in-Schools (MS) 
program, sponsored by Educational 
Futures, Inc., of Philadelphia, is 
designed to demonstrate to students 
from kindergarten to high school 
how their school subjects apply to 
the fields of landscape architecture 
and environmental design. The AIS 
program has been instrumental in 
developing and disseminating built 
environment education programs in 
thirty-six states within the last three 
years. A 1976 Arts Endowment 
grant enabled Educational Futures to 
design a process for documenting 
and evaluating program activities 
regularly within the eighty residency 
sites. These evaluations have been 
responsible for AIS's continued suc- 
cess and growth. 

The documentation and evaluation 
process requires each architect to 
provide PLducational ^ utures with a 
record and illustrations of project 
work, such as children's drawings or 
slides of project activities. These 
materials are evaluated and orga- 
nized to develop the Documentation/ 
Evaluation Book, a yearly publication. 



and are used to revise the AIS Plan- 
ning Workbook. In addition, AIS has 
produced a slide show to communi- 
cate their concept of environmental 
conservation nationwide. 

Grantee: Educational Futures, Inc. 
Project Director: 

Aase Eriksen, Executive Director, 
Educational Futures, Inc. 
Participants: 

Educational Futures staff and associ- 
ates; Attic & Cellar, designer — AIS 
Planning Workbook; Sanchez, 
designer— Documentation/Evaluation 
Book, 1976-77 

1,2 

Children sharpening their sensory aware- 
ness and learning about environmental 
design. Photographs by Educational 
Futures, Inc. 



In 1976, Mucational Futures, Inc., 
of Philadelphia received an Arts 
Endow ment grant to de\ elop a dem- 
onstration project for promoting the 
better design of public school 
grounds and their more extensive use 
by the community. The project 
illustrates how students, parents, 
school officials, and planners can 
participate in and achieve consensus 
and support for a design and plan- 
ning issue. 

A school site in Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, redeveloped into a com- 
munity park and education center, 
has provided a successful test of the 
participatory design concept. The 
project was funded jointly by the 
Arts Endow ment, the Michigan 
Council for the Arts, the city of 
Grand Rapids, and the Grand 
Rapids public school system. 

Grantee: 

Exiucational Futures, Inc. 

Project Director: 

Aase Eriksen, Executive Director, 

Educational Futures, Inc. 



Participants: 

Caroline Spankie, project associate; 
Milton .Miller, Director, Facilities 
Planning, Grand Rapids public 
schools; Sanchez, designer — The 
Central Park Project, Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, The Participatory Design 
Process 



55 



Public Education and Auareness Fducational Programs 



Environmental Community 
Problems 

The Environmental Intern Program/ 
Northeast is designed to provide 
technical assistance to community 
groups and to give students inter- 
ested in preservation and community 
development professional experience 
in those areas. The program places 
young interns in municipal agencies, 
nonprofit organizations, and state 
bureaus throughout New England. 
Interns pro\ ide design assistance to 
urban improvement projects and 
technical assistance to projects on 
historic preservation, land use as it 
applies to growth and development, 
and the use of zoning to improve the 
visual quality of the environment. 
Eunding from the Arts Endowment 
has helped support these interns, 
some of whom have been the sole 
source of information for citizens' 
groups on design subjects. 

The cooperation that has grown 
between interns and planning offi- 
cials, merchants, and civic groups 
has led the communities to adopt 
many regulations suggested by the 
interns and to form citizens' groups 
to implement suggested changes. 



Grantee: 

Environmental Intern Program/ 
Northeast 
Project Director: 
Susan VV. Hunnewell 



Environmental Experience Stipends 

Through a series of small incentive 
grants provided in part by the Arts 
Endowment, the Association of 
Collegiate Schools of Architecture 
(ACSA) has sought to encourage as 
many as thirty student and faculty 
teams from diverse schools of archi- 
tecture and design to develop new 
courses on environmental education 
for elementary and high school 
teachers. 

The Environmental Experience Sti- 
pends Program provides students at 
schools of architecture and design 
with an innovative way for learning 
how to teach nonprofessionals about 
the natural and built environment. 
Educational programs developed by 
ACSA stipend holders range from 
an academic, reading-centered 
course for teachers and education 
students at the University of Ore- 
gon, which is focused on classroom 
discussions based on value-laden and 
reform-minded readings (Barry 
Commoner's Closing Circle, Philip 
Leaton's The Pursuit of Loneliness), to 
hands-on teaching about the envi- 
ronment to primary' and secondary- 



school students through various 
games, mapping techniques, and 
field trips. 

ACSA stipend holders, linked by a 
conference and a publication of their 
efforts, have made an important 
impact on the field of environmental 
education. 

Grantee: 

Association of Collegiate Schools of 

Architecture 

Project Director: 

David Clarke, Executive Director, 

ACSA 

Participant: 

Bruce Webb 



56 



Urban Quality 
and the Arts 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Overview 



Bernard Spring 




The three people who comprised the 
panel on urban quality and the arts 
\\ ere chosen for their extensive expe- 
rience with the impact of the design 
arts, architecture, and urban design 
in particular, on the life of people in 
many and varied communities. Yet, 
their experience and points of view 
could hardly ha\ e been more differ- 
ent. One panelist is an architect- 
urban designer with a record of 
major contributions in professional 
practice, another is a professional 
v\riter and commentator on the 
impact of change in the physical 
environment on the people who use 
that environment, and the third is 
primarily an educator-theoretician 
with a background of professional 
practice. 

.\s we began our review, we quickly 
realized that we would be quite capa- 
ble of using all the allotted time to 
define in advance a written set of cri- 
teria by \\ hich to judge exceptional 
work. Instead, we decided to review 
and evaluate each project indepen- 
dently and then, by comparing 
notes, deduce the criteria they 



shared. We were delighted and 
somewhat astonished, then, to find 
that w hen we shared our indi\ idual 
judgments, we agreed on approxi- 
mately ninety percent of those proj- 
ects regarded to be outstanding 
and on eighty percent of those we 
found to have merit, or to be disap- 
pointing. We found, as well, that 
even the least effecti\ e projects had 
some potential promise: they w ere 
not "weak," but excellent opportuni- 
ties missed, and in that respect 
"disappointing." 

The panel could never ha\ e pre- 
dicted in advance the rather subtle 
criteria the projects selected seemed 
to imply in retrospect. VVe chose to 
honor work in the following four cat- 
egories: First, projects structured 
w ith an entirely original concept that 
had, to the best of our know ledge, 
never been attempted in the United 
States before and that promised to 
add an entirely new dimension to the 
quality of the environment. Kxam- 
ples include the National Museum of 
the Building Arts, San Fernando 
\'alley's Arts Park, and, in a very 



special way, Philadelphia's Schuyl- 
kill River Corridor study (Billboards 
as Roadway Art). The latter devel- 
oped a visual signage system that 
could have helped visitors to the 1976 
Bicentennial celebrations in Phila- 
delphia orient themselves to the 
neighborhoods and attractions of the 
city as they approached by car or bus 
on major access routes. The recom- 
mendations of the study were not 
implemented. The design approach 
w as nothing short of radical. Ihe 
panel spent more time debating the 
value of the substance of this pro- 
posal than they used to discuss the 
next twenty projects. Ihecontro- 
\ ersy pro\ oked by the proposal w as 
the core of its excellence. 

The second category of programs we 
considered to be excellent used ideas 
that may have been tried in other 
countries or may have appeared in 
books or articles as suggested 
approaches to urban quality. In each 
case, how ever, the adaptation to and 
actual use in a specific setting w as 
entirely original and, more important, 
successful enough to serve as a mcxlel 



for use in other locales. Such proj- 
ects are exemplified by the study of 
w ays to reuse the back alley street 
network in Louisville, Kentucky, as 
the basis for a fresh reorganization of 
neighborhood space. Ihe New York 
City .Municipal Arts Society's "visi- 
ble streets" project, w hich trans- 
formed the deadening effect of steel, 
roll-down security shutters on store- 
fronts into a visual delight by means 
of an intelligent application of murals 
to these normally blank facades, 
deserves not only recognition but 
w idespread imitation. William 
Matuszeski and .Mary Procter's l)(X)k, 
Gritty Cities, calls attention to the 
architectural richness of turn-of-the- 
centur)', \ ictorian buildings and 
neighborhw)ds in tired and grime- 
covered older northeastern industrial 
towns that most people, for lack of 
guidance, assumed w ere nothing but 
ugly. 

A third categorv- of projects the 
panel found itself claiming recogni- 
tion for encompassed design ideas 
that have been tried many times but 
that w ere represented bv unusually 



S% 



imaginative and creative solutions 
among the grants entered for consid- 
eration. Examples include the public 
transportation-related urban design 
improvements de\elopetl for Wash- 
ington, D.C.; the revitalization of 
older residential neighborhoods in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts; artists' housing 
developments in San Francisco and 
Minneapolis; and the sensitive recy- 
cling of old buildings in Dayton, 
Ohio, and Staten Island in New 
York as cultural facilities. 

The fourth and final category of 
projects we considered to be out- 
standing were notable because the 
process used was of equal or greater 
importance to the physical end prtxl- 
uct. Ihe design competition held in 
Provincetown, Massachusetts, for 
the reconstruction of the Province- 
town Playhouse is a notable exam- 
ple. The press and television found 
the public performance of the design 
process, v\hich was the essence of 
this project, to be good nev\'s in 
every sense. We felt proud that the 
inner workings of the act of design- 



ing, if adequately presented, could 
be as fascinating to nonprofessionals 
as it was to insiders like ourselves. 

Quite another kind of "process 
heavy" project, which included a 
series of art events produced by the 
Cambridge (Massachusetts) Arts 
Council, had no product at all. Seeing 
poetry projected on the moving 
lights of the sign that sits on top of 
the intensely busy newspaper and 
magazine kiosk in the middle of 
Harvard Square leaves no physical 
record, but makes an indelible 
impression on those v\ho expect to 
read nothing more than the late news 
and v\ eather report. Fhis project 
drew the panel into another extended 
discussion. None of us could know 
for certain what effect ephemeral 
events with no physical residue 
could have on the users' sense of ur- 
ban quality. Was this design at all, or 
did it fit better into the framev\ork 
of the humanities? We probed the 
details of the program until satisfied 
that the events were indeed designs, 
but designs outside the conventional 
definition of the term. 



Herein is revealed an essential but 
usually unspoken set of expectations 
for the Endowment's Design Arts 
Program. In their deliberations, the 
panel members discovered just how 
much they counted on those who 
receive grants to support projects 
that have an unconventional constit- 
uency, an unconventional process, 
or unconventional goals. VVhat better 
reason for Arts Endowment funding 
than to enable promising, creative 
work of the kind the private sector 
has never been willing or able to 
support. 

Panelists (from left to right in photo- 
graph) Bernard Spring , Ellen Perry 
Berkeley, Henry Cobb. 



59 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Cultural Facilities, Artists' Housing 




Design Charrette for Provincetow n 



When arsonists torched the historic 
Provincetow n Playhouse in 1977, 
destroying every costume, set, and 
archi\ e photograph along \\ ith the 
building, it seemed that nothing 
short of a miracle could put the 
sixtv-five-year-old company back in 
operation. Theater directors Adele 
and Lester Heller, enlisting the aid 
oi Architectural Record's then associate 
editor, William Marlin, set out to 
achieve that miracle— in an enthusi- 
astic, unconventional, and, some 
would say, ingenuous way. Their 
combining of an on-site, architects' 
competition for a new theater with 
intensive community involvement 
has resulted not only in a design that 
captures the spirit and history of 
Provincetown, but in an exciting and 
workable new approach to architec- 
tural design for the community. 

The (competition 

In choosing competitors, the project 
leaders were more concerned w ith a 
firm's interest in contextual design 
values and commitment to commu- 
nity-development issues than its 



prominence in the architectural 
field. Seven firms were selected, all 
from New England and, with one 
exception, all young and unestab- 
lished. 

On arriving in Provincetown, the 
two-man teams received their first 
real briefing on the problem: to 
design a playhouse that would 
include a main theater, a combina- 
tion rehearsal room and mini- 
theater, a multipurpose backstage 
area, a lobby and box office, quarters 
for performers and apprentices, a 
museum and archives, and a pavilion 
and caretaker's quarters — all on a site 
47' X 266', to a maximum height of 
35'. Fhey had eight days. 

Elbow to elbow, the architects went 
to work in the makeshift studio of a 
waterfront restaurant. With the 
town, the sea, and the aura of the 
playhouse heritage constantly rein- 
forcing their schemes, the teams 
produced designs diverse in inter- 
pretation, but consistent in their 
sensitivity to purpose and location. 
.All teams felt that being on-site, and 



the classroom-like intensity of work- 
ing so openly and intimately 
together, were directly responsible 
for the success of their designs. 

Chaired by I. .\1. Pei, a unique jury' 
comprising exceptional architects 
from across the country, the editor 
oi Architectural Record, and three lay 
persons from Pro\ incetow n judged 
the designs. After much delibera- 
tion, they chose the design of W'il- 
liam \\ arner of Exeter, Rhode 
Island, whose simple, nineteenth 
centurv' w arehouse-style scheme 
combined great appeal and func- 
tional utility. 



Community Involvement 

However innovative the parameters 
of the competition and judging, the 
most unorthodox and at the same 
time most significant component of 
the playhouse project was the extent 
ot community involvement. In 
deciding to hold the competition on- 
site, the project leaders had made 
a commitment to bring the archi- 
tects into contact w ith the future 



patrons of the theater. Ever)' day, 
the restaurant-studio (contributed by 
a local businessman) was opened to 
the public for an hour, and ever\- day 
more than a hundred visitors from all 
segments of Provincetov\ n stKiety 
came to w atch the architects at work. 
They came w ith questions, sugges- 
tions, helpful information, criticism, 
food, and drink; in return, they 
gained an understanding of the 
architect's craft and a sense of having 
participated in shaping the tow n. 

.And for the architects, there was sat- 
isfaction too: insight into their task, 
and a greater boldness of approach 
than would have been possible work- 
ing in isolation. One competitor 
expressed the benefits of community 
involvement by saying: "Architec- 
ture has never been closer to the peo- 
ple than during this competition. It 
is a great opportunity for both sides." 

Grantee: 

Provincetown Playhouse on the 

Wharf, Inc. 



60 




Renovating a Movie House 



Project Directors: 

Adele Heller, Lester Heller. William 
Marlin 
Participants: 

(Architects) Turner Brooks; Ken- 
nedy-Montgomery Associates; Paul 
H. Kreuger Associates; Morrish & 
Fleissig; Perrv, Dean. Stahl and 
Rogers; James \ olnev Righter; \\ il- 
liam Warner; (Jurors) I. M. Pei, 
Raquel Ramati, Herbert McLaughlin, 
Arthur Cotton Moore, Walter 
Wagner, Laurence Booth, Josephine 
DelDeo, Sal DelDeo, Ted Barker; 
Giro Cozzi, studio contributor 

1 

One of the competitors explaining his 
design for a neiv playhouse to Province- 
town, Massachusetts, residents. 
2 

William Warner with a model of his 
winning design for the restoration of the 
Provincetown Playhouse. 
3 

Provincetown Playhouse model. Photo- 
graphs by Ira Wyman. 



In 1978, the National Endowment 
for the Arts awarded the Indiana 
Repertor\- Theatre a $15,000 grant 
to support a research and design 
project for the IRT's proposed new- 
home, the Indiana Theatre, a fifty- 
two-vear-old movie house located in 
downtown Indianapolis. 

With the artisanship of Evans Wool- 
len, Indiana's leading theater archi- 
tect, the architectural feasibility 
research was completed along with 
schematic and developmental 
designs including renovation plans 
and cost estimates. 

Renovation of the Indiana Theatre is 
now under way for the IRT's new 
home opening. October 24, 1980. 
Ihe S5.29 million project will house 
three performance spaces under one 
roof and will be among the country's 
most sophisticated theater complexes. 

Grantee: 

Indiana Repertor\' Theatre 

Project Director: 

Benjamin Mordecai, Executive 

Director. Indiana Repertory Theatre 



Participants: 

Chris .\rmen. project manager; 
Woollen .\ssociates. architects; Lehr 
.\ssociates. mechanical/electrical 
engineers; Kolbjorn Saether, struc- 
tural engineer; Roger Morgan, the- 
ater consultant; Bolt, Beranek & 
Newman, acoustical consultants 



Renovations are currently under way for 
the Indiana Repertory Theatre's new 
home in the historic Indiana Theatre, 
located in the heart of downtown Indian- 
apolis. A former three thousand seat 
movie theater, the IRT facility will have 
three theater spaces under one roof with 
sophisticated administrative and produc- 
tion offices, scenery and costume shops, 
and rehearsal rooms. Photograph courtesy 
of Indiana Repertory Theatre. 



61 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



("ultural Facilities, Artists' Housintj 





cn 




SSI 



Artists' Housing in San Francisco 

For over forty years, the four Vic- 
torian structures that became the 
Go(Kinian Building graced the 
dow ntow n San F rancisco area as pri- 
vately owned town houses. The 
sights and sounds of family life gave 
way to quieter tones and slower 
rhythms w hen the units were con- 
verted into a residential hotel after 
the earthquake of 1906. The hos- 
telry, which featured commercial 
shops on the ground floor, one of 
which, A. Goodman, Ladies Tailor, 
gave the building its name, flour- 
ished in the twenties and thirties. 

By the mid-1950s, attracted by its 
central location, the demise of most 
other studio buildings in downtown 
San Francisco, excellent north light, 
Victorian ambiance, and low rent, 
the residents of the CJoodman Build- 
ing were mostly painters, writers, 
dancers, composers, musicians, 
poets, and theater people. I'here res- 
ident artists responded to the ambi- 
ance with an outpouring of art that 
has greatly enriched the cultural life 
of the city and the nation for more 
than two decades. 



But urban economics of the 1970s 
cast a shadow over the "good life" of 
the Goodman, and the structure 
eventuallv was scheduled for demoli- 
tion. The thirty residents threatened 
with eviction rebelled. Rather than 
give in without a fight, thev commis- 
sioned a feasibility study to convince 
the owner, the San Francisco Rede- 
velopment .Agency, that the building 
had historic and architectural merit 
and made a significant cultural 
contribution to the city's artistic 
heritage. 

Persuading the agency to reconsider 
its demolition order meant the resi- 
dents had to identify economically 
viable rehabilitation schemes. The 
underlying assumptions of the reha- 
bilitation alternatives were the con- 
tinued need for low -cost housing and 
studio space, compliance with all 
existing building codes and stan- 
dards, and development of existing 
cultural resources. 

From its financial analyses, the 
group discovered that, by using 
a combination of financing ap- 



proaches, the rehabilitation and 
maintenance of the building as low- 
income living space and work studios 
for artists would be feasible. 

The Goodman Group, as the pro- 
testing residents became known, also 
succeeded in making the San F ran- 
cisco community aware of the 
building's architectural value, of its 
use as a community art center, and 
of the contributions its residents 
make to the cultural life of the city. 
Their approach involved holding a 
two-day community w orkshop to 
explain the Goodman Building's cur- 
rent role and to gain a consensus on 
its future. Participants included city 
super\ isors, building code officials. 
Redevelopment Agency staff, mem- 
bers of the San Francisco arts com- 
munity, and neighbors. 

Having succeeded in saving this 
unique community institution and in 
getting the GcxKlman Building listed 
in the National Register of Historic 
Places, the new ly formed Goodman 
Building Development Corporation 
is now negotiating w ith the San 



Francisco Rede\ elopment .\gency 
to buy the building so that rehabili- 
tation of the historic structure 
can begin. 

Grantee: 

The Goodman Group, Inc. 
Project Director: 

Cathy Simon, Marquis .Associates 
Participants: 

(.Marquis .\ssociates, .Architects and 
Planners) Robert B. .Marquis, Joseph 
loussaint; Charles B. lumer, Jr. 
and Jeffrey Feldman, San Francisco 
Community Design Center; Chester 
Hartman, social planner; John Car- 
den Campbell, historic preser\ ation- 
ist; Jim Bums, community work- 
shop leader; (Economists) Exlw ard 
Kirshner, Chester .McGuire, Joel 
Rubenzahl; J. Paul Oppenheim, cost 
estimator; Otto Avvakumovits, 
structural engineer, (iF'DS F^ngi- 
neers; Rodney Roberts, mechanical 
engineer, .Montgomery & Roberts, 
Consulting F^ngineers; Agripino R. 
Cerbatos, electrical engineer, 
.Marion, Cerbatos & lomasi. Engi- 
neers; Robert Berner, Foundation 
for San Francisco's Architectural 



62 




CHIILDRENS MUSEUk 



IS^i 



A Children's Museum 



Heritage; San Francisco Redevelop- 
ment Agency staff; Mrs. Bland 
Pratt, Landmarks Preser\ ation 
Advisory Board 



The original Goodman building in 1903. 
The baby is Mervyn Goodman. The 
stained glass window and arched window 
frames were later incorporated into 
remodeled structure. 
2 

Center bay window details of the Good- 
man building. 
3 

Artists' studio space in the Goodman 
building. Photographs by Ted Milikin. 



How does a pre-Victorian mansion 
manage to present a youthful facade? 
The Pitcher-Goff Mansion of Paw- 
tucket, Rhode Island does it by 
housing the Children's Museum of 
Rhode Island, a hands-on learning 
center that offers its young visitors 
an opportunity to explore the world 
of art. 

The museum is using a $6,500 Arts 
Endowment grant to plan for the 
conversion of its buildings, which 
include an 1890 carriage house, for 
arts-related activities. The museum 
has hired a designer to suggest ways 
to sensitively adapt the architectur- 
ally fine buildings and to encourage 
an awareness by the children of the 
social, economic, and aesthetic 
milieu of turn-of-the-century Rhode 
Island. Students at the Rhode Island 
School of Design have also assessed 
the museum's facilities and recom- 
mended adaptations. 

The museum has organized a series 
of workshops ranging from making a 
model of a room to staining glass and 
glazing tiles. It is also planning to 



redesign ten exhibition spaces. One 
of the spaces contains a studio for an 
artist-in-residence. The exhibited 
studio offers children the opportu- 
nity to watch a professional artist at 
work, ask questions, and try out the 
tools and media used. The museum's 
first artist-in-residence is Rhode 
Island's Craftswoman-in-Residence, 
Diana Jackson. The position will 
rotate among artists representing dif- 
ferent areas of the visual arts. 

Grantee: 

The Children's Museum of Rhode 
Island 

Executive Director: 
Jane Jerry 
Project Director: 
Kathleen Dwyer 
Participants: 

David xMcCauley, head consultant 
and author; Jim Barnes, consultant 
and Assistant Professor, Department 
of Architecture, I he Rh(xle Island 
School of Design; .Morris Nathan- 
son, consultant and architect; Judy 
Sue Ciocxlwyn-Sturges and Mahler 
Ryder, consultants. The Rhode 
Island School of Design 



Proposed renovation of Pitcher-Goff man- 
sion. Drawing by Jim Good. 



63 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Cultural Facilities, Artists' Housing 



Harlem Institute of Fashion's 
Museum 

There exists an oft-quoted myth that 
black people are "newfound talent" 
in the fashion field. The Harlem 
Institute of Fashion (HIF), founded 
in 1966 to make the fashion arts more 
accessible to the underprivileged, 
decided to correct this misapprehen- 
sion by establishing a fashion museum 
of clothing designed and/or executed 
by blacks and other minorities. 

With the assistance of a $20,000 
grant from the National Endowment 
for the Arts, HIF obtained more 
than two hundred items from profes- 
sional fashion designers, dressmakers, 
and other artists around the country. 
With the help of many community 
volunteers, the HIF museum opened 
as scheduled on October 21, 1979. 

In addition to providing support for 
the museum, the grant enabled HIF 
to invite fashion specialists to partici- 
pate in seminars and workshops; to 
make field visits to fabric houses, li- 
braries, and museums; to take refresh- 
er courses in marketing techniques 
and promotion ideas; and to partici- 
pate in HIF's fall fashion exhibit. 



Grantee: 

Harlem Institute of Fashion 
Project Director: 
Lois K. Alexander 
Participants: 

Frank R. Giacopino, Julius F. Lane, 
Barbara Black, Bert White, Gladys 
James, Michael Henderson, Gladys 
Beckles, more than thirty volunteers; 
(Technical advisors) Stella Blum, 
Ellen Tarry, Ted Smith, Arthur 
Englander, Gylbert Coker, Terry 
Plater, Lowery Sims; (Consultants) 
Vivian Robinson, Dolores Wright, 
BemiceM. Peebles; Geoffrey 
Holder, Bernard Johnson, Tom 
Drew, Charlie E. Brown, Helen E. 
Harden, Ruth C. M. Hill, Sammye 
K. Greene, Ethel L. Payne, .\nn 
Lamb Davis; Sallie Williams, staff 
assistant 



A National Museum of the 
Building .\rts 

The United States may soon have its 
first museum dedicated to the build- 
ing arts. Our environment influences 
how we live, vet most Americans 
know ver^' little about the way our 
towns and cities are built. The Com- 
mittee for a National .Museum of the 
Building .\rts hopes to change this 
situation. With Endow ment assis- 
tance, the committee has undertaken 
a comprehensive program of 
research, public education, and fund 
raising to gain the support necessary' 
to establish a Building .Museum. 

The magnificent Pension Building in 
Washington, D.C., a landmark on 
the National Register of Historic 
Places and an impressive example of 
late nineteenth centurv' .\merican 
building technolog\-, is the future 
siteof the .Museum. In 1978, Con- 
gress passed a resolution which des- 
ignated the Pension Building an 
architectural treasure and proclaims 
the building's most appropriate use 
to be a .Museum of the Building 
.\rts. The proposed museum has the 
additional endorsement of the build- 
ing and construction trades and of 



architects and historians nation- 
wide. The timetable for restoring the 
Pension Building as the Building 
Museum depends upon when suf- 
ficient funds can be raised. The 
Committee's goal is to open the 
museum on the centennial of its 
completion in 1887. 

Regenerating the Past to Shape 
the Future 

One out of every seven Americans 
works at helping to build and rebuild 
.\merica. Construction accounts for 
almost ten percent of our gross 
national product. Buildings and 
other forms of construction express 
our tastes and aspirations. Past civili- 
zations are remembered, and judged, 
bv their monuments, temples, and 
cities. Vet few .\mericans can tell a 
good building from a bad one or real- 
ize the importance of the difference. 
In the next two decades we must 
build, rebuild, and restore more of 
our environment than we have built 
in the last two hundred years. The 
Committee for a National .Museum 
of the Building .\rts believes that we 



64 




can accomplish this task with more 
dignity and confidence if we have a 
better understanding of the building 
arts. 



A Building for the Building Arts 

Plans call for the museum exhibits 
and educational programs to com- 
bine technical, aesthetic, and social 
aspects of design, planning, and con- 
struction. The goals are to demon- 
strate that successful building is the 
result of integrated purpose, sur- 
roundings, structure, and human 
need; and to promote and assist citi- 
zen participation in planning and 
building. The museum will ser\e as 
a forum for the exchange of knowl- 
edge, experiences, and design solu- 
tions to urban-planning problems. 

The museum will house exhibits 
about design and problem-solving, 
the history of building in America, 
what buildings mean and how they 
should ser\e the needs of the individ- 
ual — the user, the client, and the 
public-at-large. There will also be 
temporary exhibits of some of our 



cities' outstanding accomplishments, 
such as the revitalization of Bal- 
timore's inner harbor; and a per- 
manent planning and building 
library and archives. Several non- 
profit organizations with comple- 
mentary interests may move their 
offices into the Pension Building and 
a museum shop and restaurant will 
be incorporated into the restoration. 

Grantee: 

Committee for a National Museum 

of the Building .\rts 

President: 

Cynthia R. Field, Director of 

Research 

Project Director: 

Wolf V^on Eckardt 

Participants: 

Volunteers and members of the 

Board and Advisorv' Committee of 

the Committee for a National 

Museum of the Building .\rts 



1 

The Pension Building in Washington, 
D.C., is the sitefor a proposed National 
Museum of the Building Arts. Photo- 
graph by Robert Lautman. 
2 

Interior of the Pension Building in Wash- 
ington, D.C. Photograph courtesy of the 
Committee for a National Museum of the 
Building Arts. 



65 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Cultural Facilities, Artists' Housing 




West Michigan's Landmark for Art 



Arts Park in Los Angeles 



Two grants from the National 
Endowment for the Arts, awarded in 
1975 and 1978, enabled the Grand 
Rapids Art Museum to renovate the 
historic Federal Building, located in 
the heart of Grand Rapids, for reuse 
as its new home. The first grant sup- 
ported a study of the 1909 Beaux- 
Arts structure to assess its adaptabil- 
ity to museum use. In 1978, a 
challenge grant of $250,000 elicited 
an unprecedented response from the 
Grand Rapids community and the 
State of Michigan, generating more 
than $3 million. 

Once the Museum has relocated in 
the Federal Building, officials antici- 
pate that it will serve more than 
250,000 people annually on both a 
community-wide and regional basis. 

Grantee: 

Grand Rapids Art Museum 

Director: 

Robert M. Murdock 

Project Director: 

Elizabeth Crouch 

Participants: 

Emilio Ambasz, architect for initial 



design development; Steenwyk & 
Thrall, architects; Museum staff and 
volunteers 



Plent)' of talent and imagination, the 
realization that we are beginning an 
era when the creative use of leisure 
time v\ ill become an important social 
concern, and some vacant land in a 
flood plain have led to a plan for an 
Arts Park in the Sepulveda Reservoir 
Basin of the San Fernando \ alley in 
Los Angeles, California. Planning 
strategies and design proposals for 
the Arts Park have been shepherded 
by the San Fernando \'alley Arts 
Council, \\ ith moral and financial 
support from the city of Ix)s Angeles 
and the National Endowment for the 
Arts. An imaginative proposal has 
been put forth by architects Frank 
O. Gehr)' and Lawrence Halprin, 
who v\ orked with a task force of 
technical advisors from the city of 
I^)s Angeles, community leaders, 
and visual and performing artists. 
This cooperative partnership repre- 
sents an innovative approach for L^)s 
.'Xngeles's cultural planning. 

Development of the Xrts Park Idea 

Planning for the Arts Park began 
several years ago uhen the U.S. 



.\rmy Corps of Engineers and the 
Department of Recreation and Parks 
set aside an eighty-acre site in the 
Sepulveda Reservoir Basin for lease 
to the city of Los Angeles. From its 
inception, the park has been con- 
ceived of as more than a new arts 
"house"; it has been designed to pro- 
vide a new kind of creative environ- 
ment where the public could \\ atch 
artists at work and participate in the 
artistic process. The Arts Park is 
planned to have a kaleidoscope of 
performances and events undertaken 
by visiting filmmakers, musicians, 
poets, architects, sculptors, dancers, 
and craftsmen. Formal facilities such 
as theaters, galleries, and \\ orkshops 
will be augmented by diverse infor- 
mal, outd(K)r performance and 
exhibit spaces. Classes in the arts 
w ill also be offered. Overall, the 
intention is to combine the best ele- 
ments of a fair and a school. 

The Arts Park Design 

The design required a certain inge- 
nuity, as part of the site will occa- 
sionally be flooded. Thus buildings 



66 




susceptible to water damage will be 
elevated above the ground. The 
main building complex is a sequence 
of bridges and decks linking open-air 
sheds, shops, studios, classrooms, 
and a 2,500-seat theater. A twenty- 
acre man-made lake will meander 
through the park. The design 
encourages visitors to stroll along 
paths, where they can watch and talk 
with artists at work. 



Participants: 

Frank O. Gehry, architect; 
Lawrence Halprin, landscape 
architect; Christopher Jaffe, 
acoustician/program planner 



Model for the proposed Arts Park in Los 
Angeles as it would appear from the man- 
made lake. 
2 

The 2,500-seat theater, to be built on 
a flood plain, will be elevated against 
water damage. Photographs courtesy of 
Frank 0. Gehry & Associates. 



No exact date has been set to begin 
construction of the Arts Park: mem- 
bers of the San Fernando Valley 
Arts Council have set a target open- 
ing date for 1984, with a projected 
capital budget of $20 million. In the 
meantime, the concept behind the 
Arts Park— participatory art for the 
public— may contribute a new 
dimension to arts programming. 

Grantee: 

San Fernando V^alley Arts Council 

Project Director: 

Joan Newberg, Executive 

Director, San Fernando Valley 

Arts Council 



67 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Cultural Facilities, Artists' Housing 




Snug Harbor 



An historic naval hospital and 
sailors' retirement home seems an 
unlikely setting for a community cul- 
tural center. Yet Snug Harbor on 
Staten Island in New York is an 
unexpected architectural haven well 
suited to its second life. 

I he eighty-acre Snug Harbor estate 
includes twenty-six buildings which 
form a living record of the evolving 
architectural taste of America in the 
nineteenth and early t\\ entieth cen- 
turies. Today the complex is being 
restored to create the Snug Harbor 
Cultural Center, a place where resi- 
dent artists can work and share their 
arts with the community. 

An Architectural Kaleidoscope 

Snug Harbor opened in 1833 as the 
first naval hospital and retirement 
home in the United States. The ini- 
tial building completed that year was 
designed in the Greek Revival style 
and established the monumental 
character reflected in all subsequent 
structures. In years following, build- 
ings constructed in the complex mir- 



rored the changing architectural 
tastes of the nation — Italianate, Sec- 
ond French Fmpire, Beaux-Arts, 
vernacular \ ictorian. Though nota- 
bly diverse in style, the twenty-six 
buildings which today form Snug 
Harbor have survived together in 
their original context, in harmony 
with one another and the environ- 
ment. Now owned by the City of 
New York, Snug Harbor has been 
placed on the National Register of 
Historic Places as a landmark. 

A Shared Cultural Dream 

In the spring of 1979, a comprehen- 
sive feasibility study for the Snug 
Harbor Cultural Center was com- 
pleted, marking the culmination of a 
three-year, community-w ide effort 
to bring this restoration dream to 
reality. 

Three successive New York City 
administrations had backed the 
development of an arts center at 
Snug Harbor. A $4.5 million grant 
\\ as approved by the state legislature 
for building restoration, and private 



capital, community development 
grants, and federal matching funds 
w ere donated for interior renovation. 
One new building is proposed: a 
glass-enclosed structure connecting 
the planned music hall and recrea- 
tion building. 

The energetic support of the arts 
community was guided by the Stat- 
en Island Council on the Arts. The 
Council oversaw the preparation of 
the feasibility study, w hich included 
an exhaustive investigation into the 
historv' and architectural significance 
of the Snug Harbor buildings. 

Snug Harbor has operated on a lim- 
ited basis since July 1976, providing 
space to fourteen communirv arts 
organizations and opening its first 
exhibition space, the New house 
Community Gallery. The new Cul- 
tural Center will significantly 
enhance cultural and artistic oppor- 
tunities on Staten Island, a growing 
community that currently lacks ade- 
quate studios, performance facilities, 
and galleries. For the many talented 
professional artists already living on 



the Island, the Cultural Center will 
pro\ ide a place w here thev can share 
their w ork w ith the communitv. Bv 
helping to attract residents to the 
borough, it w ill become an economic 
asset as well. 

Grantee: 

Snug Harbor Cultural Center, Inc. 
Executive Director: 
Michael T. Sheehan 
Project Director: 
David Gibson, David Gibson & 
Associates 

Participants: Steven Bauer, Bamett 
Shephard, et al., David Ciibson & 
AssfKiates; Touche Ross and other 
preliminar)- studies; Columbia Uni- 
versit\' School of .Architecture, Pro- 
gram in Preservation 

/ 

The original Greek Revival building, 

built in 1833. 

2 

The Snug Harbor Complex: a parade of 

architectural styles. Photographs courtesy 

of Snug Harbor Cultural Center. 



68 




An Art Center for Dayton 



Designs have been drawn up and 
plans are under way to convert a 
nineteenth century armory into a 
community art center in Dayton, 
Ohio. The design reflects the desire 
of the city's performing and fine arts 
groups to make their art available 
to the public in an appealing, 
convenient, and unpretentious 
environment. 

In 1977, the Dayton City Beautiful 
Council, a city agency, assembled a 
group of cultural organizations that 
wanted to make their art more easily 
available to the public. The discus- 
sion group included members of a 
repertory theater, a professional 
graphics design firm, representatives 
from the art departments of area uni- 
versities, and the Dayton Art Insti- 
tute. Group members agreed that 
the most desirable way to make their 
diverse design and performing arts 
activities more accessible would be 
to locate them in a single building — 
an old warehouse, perhaps — that 
could accommodate them v\ith econ- 
omy, flexibility, and distinction. 



A nineteenth century' armory on 
the main route downtown met these 
criteria, and more. Located in an 
inner-city neighborhood that has 
undergone significant renovation 
in recent years, the armory as an art 
center should be a valuable asset to 
the area as it stimulates additional 
improvements. 

The exterior of the armor\' will be 
restored to its original appearance; a 
monumental stair will be added to 
the front entrance. The building's 
generous windows, which make the 
interior visible from the outside, will 
enable passers-by to glimpse activi- 
ties within. Arts activities will be 
staged on five levels. The basement 
and ground floor will house the the- 
ater, the building's largest tenant. 
The second floor will contain the art 
gallery and administrative offices. 
The third floor and an attic to be 
converted into a loft will provide stu- 
dio space. A common lounge set in a 
rotunda furnished with a fireplace 
will be located at the center of the 
third floor, with a cathedral ceiling 
extending into the loft. Dubbed "the 



hearth," this area is where free 
exchange of ideas among the various 
artists will take place. 

The present owners of the armory 
have agreed to move their business to 
new quarters and have offered the 
building for the Art Center. Fund 
raising to cover the costs of adapting 
the armory is now in progress. 

Grantee: 

City of Dayton, Ohio 

Project Director: 

Paul R. Wick, Director, City 

Beautiful Council of Dayton, Ohio 

Participants: 

J. T. Patterson, Jr., President, City 

Beautiful Council of Dayton, Ohio; 

Jefferson B. Riley, AI.V, and J. P. 

Chadwick Floyd, .\IA, Partners- 

in-Charge, Moore Grover Harper, 

project consultant; Lorenz and 

Williams, Inc., consultant 

Photography: 

Thomas Brow n 



I 

Proposed conversion of a nineteenth cen- 
tury armory to an art center for the city 
of Dayton, Ohio. Photograph by Thomas 
A. Brown. 



69 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



(Cultural Facilities, Artists' Housing 





Artist Living/Working Space 



A Cultural Center at Boott Mill 



Historically, artists have served as 
urban pioneers as they have sought 
and developed discarded building 
spaces into creative environments, 
battled with building and zoning 
officials to legitimize their occu- 
pancy, and subsequently stimulated 
other commercial development. 

The Minneapolis Arts Commission, 
aware that many local artists had 
begun to occupy vacant w arehouses 
as living/working spaces in the cen- 
tral city, became concerned that no 
action had been taken to provide the 
living and working space that met 
artists' needs and complied u ith the 
zoning and building codes. 

As a first step in defining a way to 
secure and retain appropriate space 
for use by artists, who they viewed 
as vital to the cultural life of Minne- 
apolis, the commission undertook 
the .Minneapolis Warehouse Project. 
1 he Project examined buildings in 
the downtown Warehouse District 
to determine how vacant and under- 
utilized warehouse buildings could 
be converted to artists' studios and 



living spaces in compliance with zon- 
ing and building codes and still be 
kept affordable for low and moderate 
income artists. 

.\n initial survey of eighty buildings 
was made to assess general building 
conditions, current use, rental rates, 
existing mechanical and electrical 
services, floor plan, and circulation. 
Then five buildings representing a 
variety of building sizes, age, and 
use were studied in greater detail. 
F"or each of the five, design schemes, 
cost estimates, and possible financ- 
ing arrangements were prepared. 
Development is more cost-efficient 
for larger buildings, but the scale 
required mortgage and public 
financing to make the space afford- 
able to artists. 

These and other study findings were 
published in a report, which serves 
as a sourcebook of analytical data, 
financing tools, legal and develop- 
ment mechanisms that can be used to 
create safe, affordable artist studio/ 
living spaces in unused warehouse 
and commercial buildings. 



Grantee: 

.Minneapolis Arts Commission 

Executive Director: 

Melisande Charles 

Project Director: 

Kris Nelson 

Participants: 

Steven Shapiro, legal researcher; 

Scott Williams and Kanwarjit Hora, 

architectural survey; (Architectural 

design and analysis) K. .VI. Lockhart, 

Richard .Morrill, Scott Wende, 

.Michael .Mc(]arthy; Robert Die- 

drich, engineer; James .McComb, 

economic and financial analysis 



.\s recently as 1972, the city of Lx)w- 
ell, .Massachusetts possessed no 
major historical, cultural, or art cen- 
ter, although its population exceeds 
100,000. The Human Ser\ ices Cor- 
poration, armed u ith a grant from 
the National Endowment for the 
.\rts, engaged Boston architects 
.Michael and Susan Southworth to 
develop plans for a community cul- 
tural facility that would not only 
meet Low ell's needs but also assure 
the sur\ival of a nineteenth century 
mill building sited on the Merrimack 
River. 

The Southworth plan calls for the 
conversion of historic Boott .Mill into 
a cultural and educational center 
catering to the community- and sup- 
ported by rental income from shops, 
offices, apartments, and a hotel. 1 he 
innovative economic model, u hich 
uses the development of residences, 
hotel and commercial facilities on the 
site to support cultural activities, has 
since been adopted by several insti- 
tutions across the country. 



70 




Grantee: 

Human Services Corporation 

Executive Director: 

Patrick Mogan 

Project Director: 

Susan Southvvorth 

Participants: Michael and Susan 

Southworth, project architects and 

planners; Community of Lowell 

1,2 

Boott Mill, built in 1835, and its pro- 
posed redevelopment. Photographs by 
Michael Southworth. 



A Museum Evolves 

In 1973, the Temple Cultural Activi- 
ties Center, Inc. received assistance 
from the National Endow ment for 
the Arts for the purpose of initiating 
an arts program in central I exas. 
Eunding was used to move an 
authentic 1907 railroad depot from 
McukIv, lexas to lemple, w here 
it would house a historv museum, 
librar)', and public archives. Numer- 
ous businesses and local ser\'ice clubs 
agreed at the time to help restore the 
building to its historically accurate 
condition as part of their contribu- 
tion to Temple's Bicentennial Cele- 
bration. Later, several Texas foun- 
dations contributed substantial 
funds to complete the project. 

Total restoration was achieved fol- 
lowing a successful move, and on 
July 30, 1979, the chartered museum 
opened to the public. I he booklet A 
Museum Evolves recounts the entire 
project storv'. 

Grantee: 

Railroad and Pioneer .Museum, Inc. 

Project Director: 

Mrs. Richard D. Haines, Director 



and First \'ice President, Railroad 
and Pioneer Museum, Inc. 
Participants: 

(Museum officers) Moran Kuvken- 
dall, President; Mrs. H. K. Allen, 
Second Vice President; James Hes- 
tand. Secretary; D. Q. Baskin, Irea- 
surer; Richard Huff, CAC!!, Inc.; 
Board of Irustees, Railroad and Pio- 
neer .Museum; Many volunteers 

A Museum Evolves is axailable from 
the Railroad and Pioneer .Museum. 



A Santa Fe Railroad station house has 
been brought back to life as an historical 
and cultural center. Photograph courtesy 
of the Railroad and Piotieer Museum. 



71 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



LivaMc C-itics 




Gritty Cities 



This boolc l)egan in Baltimore. As 
weekentl refugees from the bureau- 
cracy-inspired neoclassical avenues 
of their home city, Washington, 
D.C., Mary Procter and Bill Matus- 
zeski began to explore the red-brick 
neighborhoods and tumble-down 
industrial areas of the great port city 
next door. Their curiosity aroused, 
the husband and wife team broad- 
ened their explorations and found 
many smaller cities in the Northeast 
with industrial roots and a contem- 
porary pluckiness that led them to 
call their discoveries "gritty cities." 
In the course of their travels, they 
visitai approximately forty such 
cities and decided to do a book on the 
twelve they liked best. Gritty Cities: 
A Second Look, in its third printing, 
has received wide critical acclaim. 
Seminars and conferences have been 
held in New York, Washington, 
Princeton, and nearly all of the gritty 
cities to explore how urban revital- 
ization can be based on the historical 
and architectural legacies suggested 
by the book. 



What Is a Gritty City? 

Tucked away on the backs of cough- 
drop boxes, the bottoms of thermos 
jugs, and the labels of shirts worn 
ever>' day are listed a number of not 
so far-a\v ay places \v ith not so very 
strange-sounding names like Read- 
ing, Norwich, and Troy. These old 
manufacturing cities and nine others 
like them in the Northeast — Allen- 
town, Bethlehem, Bridgeport, 
Hoboken, Lancaster, Paterson, 
Trenton, Waterbury, and Wilming- 
ton — are the subject of this book. 
They are the places where natural 
setting, historical events, and the 
people who settled there combined 
to pr(Kluce a special visual character 
that endures. 



A Second Look 

The book. Gritty Cities: A Second 
Look, begins by tracing the role 
played by these cities and others of 
their size in the Industrial Revolu- 
tion. Attention is given to the condi- 
tions which eventually caused them 
to lose advantage over large metro- 



politan areas, as well as the contem- 
porar)' trend to urban living on a 
human scale that could mark their 
competitive resurgence. In essays 
and photographs the special charac- 
teristics of each city are emphasized 
and used to document the potential 
for preservation and the way that 
good design can be used to restore 
community vitality. 

The b(K)k has received broad 
endorsement from critics of urban 
affairs, but most significant is the 
response from the gritty cities. With 
typical grit and determination, they 
are taking steps to rediscover and 
build on the individual character that 
emanates from their industrial past, 
so that they u ill not only survive, 
but prosper, in the future. 

Grantee and Project Director: 

William Matuszeski 

Participant: 

.Mary Procter, co-author 

Photography: 

Mary Pnxrter and 

William Matuszeski 



Ponemab Mills in Tafiville near Nor- 
wich, Connecticut. Built in 187 S, the 
complex housed 1 , 500 looms. 
2 

The comer of Chestnut and Lime Streets 
in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. These sim- 
ple, elegant early nineteenth century 
rowhouses are characteristic of Lancaster. 
3 

Townhouses and bay iv indoles on Wash- 
ington Park in Troy, New York. The 
park is the center of an extensive area of 
privately renovated houses. 



72 




20th Century Transportation and 
Civic Design for an 18th Century City 

Washington, D.C., was for 
perhaps a hundred years the largest 
"planned" city in the world. How- 
ever, twentieth century technology 
and growth imposed on L'Enfant's 
eighteenth century street design 
have proved almost unworkable. 
Today Washington's downtown area 
is the largest in North America; its 
central activities spread over more 
than four square miles. Each day 
more than 350,000 people work in 
central Washington, and most travel 
there by private automobile, putting 
75,000 cars on the roads every rush 
hour. 

Recognizing that the future viability 
of the downtown area as a place to 
live, work, and visit depended on 
improving the quality of transporta- 
tion, the Washington, D.C., govern- 
ment, with financial aid from the 
-A^rts Endowment and the Federal 
Highway Administration, commis- 
sioned a series of studies to recom- 
mend feasible improvements. 

A study submitted by the architec- 
ture and engineering firm Joseph 



Passonneau and Partners proposed a 
series of traffic modifications that 
would build on the eighteenth cen- 
tury city plan, restore pedestrian 
rights-of-way, and increase the 
capacity of the streets for vehicular 
traffic while increasing the speed and 
reducing the cost of travel to and 
within the downtown area. The firm 
proposed that these modifications 
could be made by applying relatively 
simple principles of traffic manage- 
ment and urban design, and that 
they could be undertaken with a lim- 
ited capital investment, at a manage- 
able total cost and one by one with 
little disruption. The plan suggested 
specific ways to separate vehicles 
and people, parking policies that 
favor shoppers and short stays, spe- 
cial rights-of-way for buses, and the 
curtailment of long-term curbside 
parking. The proposal also calls for 
new paving, trees, and street furni- 
ture in particular locations. 

Elements of the plan are already 
completed and others are planned by 
District agencies and the National 
Park Ser\ice. .\lthough this system 



is particular to Washington, building 
on the new Metro rail subway and 
the L'Enfant Plan, the principles are 
applicable to the traffic, develop- 
mental, and environmental problems 
of all large, dense, congested central 
cities. 

Base maps, developed by Passon- 
neau for this work, provide a com- 
mon point of reference, and are used 
by many Washington area public 
and private agencies. A related ex- 
hibit, "The Streets of Washington," 
has been shown at the National \isi- 
tor Center. A "Side Street Improve- 
ment Project" for the Pennsylvania 
Avenue Development Corporation 
has been developed by Passonneau 
as a direct outgrowth of this work. 
More than $6 million will be spent 
on street narrowing, sidewalk pav- 
ing, and new street trees in the area 
from 3rd Street to 15th Street just 
north of Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Grantee: 

District of Columbia .Municipal 

Planning Office 



Project Director: 
John Fondersmith, Chief, 
Downtown Section, D.C. Office 
of Planning and Development 
Participants: 

James E. Clark III, Project Director, 
District of Columbia Department of 
Transportation; (Joseph Passonneau 
and Partners) Joseph Passonneau, 
Laurie Olin, Jeffrey Wolf, D. L. 
Zolinas, Victoria Steiger, Chris- 
topher Passonneau, Carla Waltz; 
Daniel Brand, consultant, travel 
modeling; R. H. Pratt, consultant, 
local street traffic and bus transit; 
Credits for Summarv Report: 
Design by Joel Katz and Richard 
Saul Wurman; Illustration by Joseph 
Passonneau and Partners 



Nineteenth Street, one of Washington , 

D. C. V major business streets as it is 

today. 

2 

Proposed modification to incorporate a 

bikeway and more pedestrian space and 

trees. Drawings by Joseph Passonneau & 

Partners. 



73 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Livable Cities 




Visible Streets 



A small eyesore on a heavily used 
commercial street becomes a daily 
affront to thousands of pedestrians in 
a city as large as New York. On the 
premise that public places can be 
improved dramatically with a little 
money and a lot of legwork, the 
Municipal Art Society of New York 
began its Visible Streets Project in 
November 1977 with a $10,000 
matching grant from the National 
Endowment for the Arts. 

The project focused on specific 
improvements in two neighbor- 
hocKls: the roll-down security gates 
on storefronts along Fulton Street in 
Brooklyn and a neglected automobile 
bridge, vintage 1917, in front of 
Grand Central Station, Manhattan, 
known as the Pershing Square Via- 
duct. The sites were selected for 
their high visibility, heavy pedes- 
trian traffic, proximity to public 
transportation and to businesses 
likely to support the project tlnan- 
cially, and suitability to low-cost 
design solutions likely to effect dra- 
matic physical improvement. 



Fulton Street Storefronts 

On Fulton Street the goal u as to 
paint a 50' x 8' mural on three roll- 
down security gates that sealed off 
adjacent shops at night and on week- 
ends. Community enthusiasm 
existed from the start. 

The Municipal Art Society enlisted 
the support of the Fulton Mall 
Improvement Association in raising 
public awareness among many small 
merchants. The business commu- 
nity, as represented by the Mall 
Association, viewed the project as an 
immediate and effectix e \\ ay to make 
a positive impact on the street and 
responded positively with $4,000 in 
matching funds. 

The mural \\ as commissioned 
through a competition. Six artists 
submitted mural proposals to the 
Municipal Art Society, which chose 
two for further development. A 
jury, which included local store 
owners, selected the final design. 

I he artist was paid to supervise 
painting, undertaken by a local 



graphics company using a photo- 
reprcxluction technique, at a cost of 
$1,900. The other entries were docu- 
mented and retained in a "design 
bank," from \\ hich additional design 
schemes can be developed. 

To continue the project within the 
community, the Fulton Street .Mali 
Improvement Association has 
applied for CET.^ funds. To publi- 
cize the project, the Municipal Art 
Society created a poster, \\ hich it 
sent u ith press releases to merchant 
associations, community groups, 
business and design publications, 
and dow ntow n development offices 
nationw ide. Merchant associations 
in Manhattan and Staten Island are 
planning similar projects as a result 
of the publicity. And on Fulton 
Street, v\ here graffiti typically 
abounds, the mural has remained 
unmarred and in excellent condition 
for more than a year. 

Pershing Square Viaduct 

The restoration of the Pershing 
Square \ iaduct u as to serv e tw o 



ambitious goals. The first was the 
identification and organization of rel- 
evant neighborhood, corporate, and 
government entities. Ihe second 
was a design plan and restoration of 
a structurally sound but neglected 
bridge. 

With the aid of good timing, both 
goals were accomplished. Indepen- 
dent of the project, the Department 
of Highways had scheduled repaint- 
ing as part of normal maintenance at 
approximately the time the project 
began. They were to paint all the 
metalwork — structural steel, orna- 
mental iron, and the bronze statue of 
Commf)dore \ anderbilt — a standard 
grey. With the intercession of the 
Visible Streets Project, the contract 
was substantially altered to include 
only the structural steel, w hich was 
to be sandblasted as w ell as painted. 
The color was also changed from 
grey to hues of green, \\ hich the 
Society selected. 

Ne.xt, the Society commissioned 
the architectural firm of Hardy 
Holzman Pfeiffer Associates to pre- 



( 



74 




pare draw ings for a complete restora- 
tion: masonrv' cleaning, cleaning and 
repainting ornamental bronze, 
rewiring existing lighting, and 
designing new lighting tor the 
underside of the viaduct. 

To reco\er the restoration cost, esti- 
mated to be S265,000. the Municipal 
Art Society spoke w ith two pri\ ate 
developers of new buildings in the 
neighborhcxxi of Kast 42nd Street. 
One, w hose w orld headquarters 
faces the viaduct, agreed to contrib- 
ute to a fund for continued mainte- 
nance; the other will generate SI. 8 
million "in lieu of tax" funds that 
must, by law , refurbish the neigh- 
borhood. Another Si. 5 million mav 
be added to this pool through funds 
available to the Metropolitan Trans- 
portation Authority and Cirand 
Central Terminal. 



Grantee: 

The Municipal .\rt Society 
of New York 
Kxecutive Director: 
.\Iargot U ellington 
Project Director: 
Robert Jensen 
Participants: 

Doris C. Freedman, President, 
.MAS; New York Citv Department 
of Highw ays; .Mayor's Office of 
Development; .Mayors Oftlce of 
-Midtow n Planning and Develop- 
ment; .Michael Strasser, Fulton 
Street .Mall Improvement Associa- 
tion; Philip Morris Inc.; Bower\- 
Sa\ ings Bank; George Klein; 
Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer .\ssociates; 
Ken Carbone, Gottshalk & .\sh 
Photography: 
Robert Jensen 



1,2 

Paint ina in progress and complete on roll- 

doii'n doors alona Fulton Street. 

3 

Primer coat being applied to Pershing 

Square Viaduct. 



The bridge has now been repainted, 
and the substantial corporate and 
tax-based funds earmarked for the 
viaduct should assure its complete 
restoration. 



/.> 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



LivahlcCjtics 



Adopt-A-Station 



Billboards as Roadu av Art 



In March 1978 the Municipal Art 
Society of New York joined actively 
in the New York Metropolitan 
Transportation Authority's (MTA) 
" Adopt- A-Station," an improvement 
program aimed at the vital but long- 
neglected netherworld of the subway 
station. Using a $30,000 grant from 
the National Flndowment for the 
Arts, the Society has engaged the 
talents of professional designers, 
architects, and artists and coordi- 
nated their participation in the 
design process with the architects 
and engineers at the New York City 
Transportation Authority 
(NYCTA). The program has 
achieved its goal: several subway sta- 
tions in New York are in the process 
of becoming more livable spaces. 

With the cooperation of the MTA, 
city and state agencies, major institu- 
tions, and private funding sources, 
designs were completed for several 
stations. The Clark Street and Wall 
Street stations will be completed in 
1981, and six other stations are in 
various stages of design, approval, 
and construction. The scope of the 



other projects varies from .\stor 
Place, where station improvements 
may well be the catalyst for neigh- 
borhood change, to projects, spon- 
sored by arts groups, in which art- 
ists' works are the featured element 
in the improvements. 

The success of "Adopt-A-Station" 
can be measured by the .\1 lA's will- 
ingness to continue the program. 
Ihe NYCTA, in turn, is more v\ ill- 
ing to accept innovative and exciting 
design ideas. And the Urban .Mass 
Transportation .Authority is consid- 
ering an application from the MTA 
and .Municipal Art Society to study 
how to relate subway stations to sig- 
nificant cultural institutions in New 
York City. 

Grantee: 

The .Municipal .Art Society of 
New York 
Executive Director: 
Margot Wellington 
Project Director: 
Alexia Lalli 
Participants: 
Public Art Fund, .Metropolitan 



Transportation Authority', 
New York City Transportation 
Authority, New York City Office of 
Fxonomic Development, Chase 
Manhattan Bank, New York State 
Urban Development Corporation, 
Cultural Council Foundation .\rtists 
Project (CET.A), Brooklyn Heights 
Community, Rudolph de TIarak & 
.Associates, Inc. —graphic designers, 
Howard Brandston, lighting designer 



In preparation for the 1976 Bicenten- 
nial celebration, the city of Philadel- 
phia asked one of their resident 
architecture and planning firms, 
Yenturi and Rauch, in association 
u ith .Murphy Levy \\ urman, to pro- 
pose impnn ements along the road- 
\\ ays and develop sign systems that 
would help visitors to the city orient 
themselves as they approached l)y 
bus or car on one of t\\ o major 
routes, the airport road and the 
Schuylkill Ri\er (Corridor. Ihefirm 
studied the character of the different 
parts of the corridors and then 
described the corridor in an illus- 
trated report that focused on aesthet- 
ics and roadu av communications 
techniques for the diverse urban 
park landscapes to the north of the 
city and the industrial landscape to 
the south. Their recommendations 
included safety, maintenance and 
repair, improN ed access to proposed 
recreational facilities along the 
Schuylkill Ri\er, landscaping, and 
directional and commercial signage. 

\ enturi, Rauch, and \\ urman devel- 
oped recommendations for direc- 



76 




tional signs under Federal Highu av 
Administration guidelines, then tak- 
ing a lesson from Las \ egas, to 
w hich Robert \ enturi and his \\ ife, 
urban planner Denise Scott Brow n. 
gave prominence in architectural cir- 
cles in their highly publicized and 
w idely debated book, Leajtiing froin 
Lms Vegas, the tlrm decided that com- 
mercial signage, if it \\ as to be read 
and understood bv visitors traveling 
along roadw avs at high speeds, 
should be symbolic rather than pure 
and refined in form. In areas where 
commercial signs u ould be in keep- 
ing \\ ith the landscape, such as along 
the airport road, \ enturi and Rauch 
proposed the development of com- 
mercially sponsored billboard-sized 
signs for the Bicentennial that 
expressed the historical and cultural 
motifs of Philadelphia. Making a 
case for the legitimacy of billboards 
in cenain parts of the city, as "vital 
elements of folk and popular art 
\\ hose value is now accepted by 
'serious' artists," the firm proposed 
erecting billboards in decayed indus- 
trial areas, w here they help screen 
eyesores and protect or frame vistas 



and w here they could stand instead 
of the landscaping the cirv could not 
afford. 1 he billboards proposed 
were oversized "pop" cutouts of his- 
torical images and cultural refer- 
ence — such as William Penn, the 
pretzel, the "hoagie"" sandw ich, and 
rowers. 

The sign system w as never 
implemented. 

Grantee: 

Cir\- of Philadelphia 
Project Director: 

George Dudzek, Managing Analyst, 
Managing Directors Office, Citv* of 
Philadelphia 
Project Coordinator: 
John A. Gallers" 
Consultants: 

Murphy Levy U urman, \ enturi and 
Rauch, Associated Architects and 
Planners; Denise Scott Brown, Part- 
ner-m-Charge; Marv Vee. Project 
Manager; Paul Hirshom, Steve Ize- 
nour, Joseph Mallace, Missy Max- 
well, Jeffrey Ryan 



1,2 

Sigrj age proposed by architects V enturi, 
Rauch. and Scott Bron-Jifor airport-city 
road in Philadelphia to orient visitors to 
the 19~6 Bicenteiinial celebration. Photo- 
graphs by I 'enturi, Rauch, and Broun. 



II 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Livable Cities 




Alleys: A Hidden Resource 



Out of sight, out of mind — the 
American residential alley has been 
the geographic and social outcast of 
the built environment for at least a 
half-century. Now, a second look 
has caused some to believe that these 
back lanes are a hidden resource. 
The Louis\'ille Community Devel- 
opment Cabinet initiated a project to 
investigate the potential for adapting 
alleys to modern needs. They called 
for imaginative proposals that can be 
easily implemented by individuals, 
neighborhood organizations, or gov- 
ernments. The project spawned 
design schemes by the Louisville 
Community Design Center and 
Jonathan Harnett, and a book, Alleys: 
A Hidden Resource, written by 
Grady Clay. 

From Function to Purpose 

.Although alleys penetrated and 
reinforced the structure of most 
nineteenth century cities, they have 
become near wastelands, haunts of 
the unwanted. .Mleys were laid out 
to serve property: they provide 
access to the rear of buildings, form- 



ing a subnetwork of the main street 
system of a city. .Mleys went out of 
fashion in the late 192()s. Bigger cars 
which no longer fit into alley garages, 
slum clearance, and the construction 
of giant structures covering entire 
blocks were just a few of the develop- 
ments that hastened the demi.se of 
alleys as significant urban .spaces. 

In his book, Grady Clay shows that 
with the right planning and manage- 
ment, alleys could once again 
become special places. Fhey are a 
potential urban retreat, an enclave 
just off a bu.sy street, a step away 
from crowds and congestion. The 
interiors of thousands of city blocks, 
if redesigned and controlled by their 
residents, offer land that is serviced 
by utilities and close to jobs, schools, 
and churches. 



Guidelines for By- Ways 

With 750 miles of Louisville's older 
properties having frontage on or 
access to alleys, they are a resource 
to be tapped. The city applied for an 
Endowment grant to examine the 



possibilities for turning alleys into 
assets, choosing five sites for investi- 
gation. Each was in an older neigh- 
borh(KKi where some official com- 
munity development program was 
already under u av and u here a 
neighborhood group was willing to 
help contact residents and arrange 
planning sessions. The five locations 
were geographically dispersed and 
each was typical of many other alley 
configurations throughout the city. 
They include a downtov\'n alley, a 
neighborhood \\ ith se\ eral main 
streets, a typical old-fashioned rec- 
tangular block, an older declining 
block, and a triangular site offering 
an opportunity to develop either a 
major recreation center or new 
housing. 

Proposals undertaken by the Ix)uis- 
ville Community Design Center for 
the five sites ranged from restrictions 
on through traffic to designing and 
building a recreational facility. The 
conclusion of the study presents 
guidelines for the reuse of alley space 
that can be applied in other cities 
with alleys. Three of the projects are 



now being implemented: street clos- 
ings and tree plantings in the Gun- 
der Avenue area of the mostly black 
Russell neighborhotxl of Louisville; 
the development of new housing on 
the triangular site; and replanting a 
dow ntown alley adjacent to a new 
museum. 

Grady Clay's charming, readable, 
and well-designed (Clay even created 
a new typeface, "Allee," for the head- 
ings) book. Alleys: A Hidden Resource, 
is in its second printing. The city of 
Louisville is using its guidelines in 
planning strategies for public 
improvements. Far beyond Louis- 
ville, the book has received critical 
attention and approval as an Alterna- 
tive Selection of the .Macmillan 
Urban .\ffairs Book Club and u ith 
reviews in several newspapers. 

Grantee: 

Cir\' of Louisville, Community 

Development Cabinet (LCDC) 

P'xecutive Director: 

William B. Gatew ood 

Project Director: 

Ronald Gascoyne, Director, 



78 




Louisville Community 

Design Center 

Director of Planning: 

Shyamu Shastri, LCDC 

Participants: 

Jonathan Bamett, planner and 

project consultant; Dan Hobb and 

Steve Hall, book design 

Alleys: A Hidden Resource, published 

by Grady Clay and Company, 1978. 



More than a century s change in taste sep- 
arates the razzle-dazzle pattern on the 
industrial building from the now-rare 
exposed limestone paving of a nineteenth 
centujy alley in the Butchertown neigh- 
borhood of Louisville, Kentucky. 
2 

"The Jungle" in downtown Louisville, 
Kentucky, between the back of old com- 
mercial buildings and a new flood-wall 
with Fort Nelson Park in the foreground. 
Photographs by Grady Clay. 



A iVIovable Park 

The Movable Park is a modular con- 
struction system of wooden seats, 
planters, tables, brightly colored 
canvas canopies and canopy frames. 
These parts can be assembled in 
countless configurations to accom- 
modate the shape of a particular site. 

The system was designed by Envi- 
ronmental Education and the Tampa 
Community' Design Center to pro- 
vide usable park space on vacant 
urban sites. It can be easily disman- 
tled and reconstructed in new con- 
figurations as vacant sites fill and 
new ones become available. 

Funds provided by the National 
Endowment for the .\rts enabled the 
groups to design a Movable Park 
prototype and a marketing brochure. 
Enthusiastic about the park's poten- 
tial, the Tampa Board of Realtors 
donated funds for its construction. 

Franklin Street Mall in downtown 
Tampa is the current site of the park. 
.\ haven for shoppers and office 
workers, the park pro\ ides badly 
needed seating, shade, and plant 



materials in an otherwise empty area 
of the mall. The construction of two 
additional parks on the mall this past 
spring attests to the continuing suc- 
cess of the Movable Park system. 

Grantee: 

Environmental Education, Inc./ 
Tampa Community Design 
Center, Inc. 
Executive Directors: 
Stacy Frank, Amy Aspell 
Project Directors: 
Rich .Martini, Dave Wildes 
Participants: 

Jan Abell, David Fronczak, Eliza- 
beth Gassel, .Mark Gibbons, Mark 
Johnson, Jack Stephens, Warfield 
Landscaping and Nursery, Melvin 
McQuay, Bud Peck, Wayne Pitts, 
.Mona Roberson, Mike Shirley, Rick 
.Melbv; (Sponsors) Tampa Tribune, 
Tampa Board of Realtors, City of 
Tampa Parks Department, Franklin 
Street Mall Committee 



/ 

A modular, "movable" park in plan. 
Drawing by Tampa Community Design 
Center, Inc. 
2 

Components of the movable park built in 
Tampa, Florida. Photograph by Envi- 
ronmental Education, Inc. 



79 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Livable Cities 




1% for Art in Civic Architecture 

Since 1970, the city of Baltimore has 
spent more than $1 million to com- 
mission and install nearly 150 pieces 
of art into its civic architecture. 

The program to incorporate art in 
public places was conceived of by 
the city as part of a major program 
begun in the 1960s to revitalize 
ilov\'ntown Baltimore's central busi- 
ness district. In looking for ways to 
foster and integrate the performing 
and visual arts into their plan, the 
city decided to allocate one percent 
of the total reconstruction cost of 
any new public building to be spent 
on art. 

The decision on the form of art and 
choice of artist for any building rests 
primarily with the building's archi- 
tect. A Civic Design C>ommission 
has been established by the city to 
coordinate the program and approve 
the architect's choice. 

1% Art in Civic Architecture, a book 
produced on the project, recounts 
the Baltimore experience, the back- 
ground and rationale for the integra- 



tion of arts and architecture, the his- 
toric and contemporary precedents, 
the struggle for legislation, and the 
implementation of the concept, \\ ith 
its successes and drawbacks. 

The guide, prepared by R IKL 
.\ssociates. Inc., a Baltimore archi- 
tectural and planning firm, should 
prove useful to other tow ns, cities, 
and states planning to undertake 
similar programs. 

Grantee: 

Maryland .\rts Council 

P'xccutive Director: 

Kenneth Kahn 

Project Director: 

Charles E. Lamb, FAIA, RTKL 

Associates, Inc. 

Credits: 

RTKL Associates, Inc., architects 

and planners; Bernard B. Perlman, 

author 



; 

Sculpture by du Fayet outside of 
Walbrook Junior-Senior High School, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 
2 

Sculpture by Edminster installed at Cold- 
stream Park Recreation Center, Balti- 
more, Maryland. Photographs by RTKL 
Associates, Architects and Planners. 



Art in Cambridge Parks 

"How can v\ e encourage e\ erybody 
to participate in the arts, and at the 
same time utilize the energ)* devel- 
oped by that process of participation 
to permanently enhance the City?" 

The city is Cambridge, .Massachu- 
setts, and the question is posed by 
the Cambridge Arts Council over 
and over and over again. The .\rts 
Council, the official arts agency of 
the city of Cambridge and one of 
more than nine hundred arts coun- 
cils across the country, has opted not 
only to serve in the traditional role of 
fundraiser and clearinghouse for 
existing arts institutions, but also to 
commit its energies to the larger 
problems of urban environmental 
quality in a densely populated, eth- 
nically varied, and predominantly 
blue-collar city. Since its inception 
four years ago, a top priority of the 
Council has been to develop a com- 
prehensive strategv' for impro\ ing 
the physical appearance of the city, 
u ith the goals of improving commu- 
nity pride, developing a grow ing col- 
lection of important works of public 
art for the city, and providing oppor- 



80 




tunities to involve artists in the city's 
planning and design processes. 

The Council's Parklet Program was 
created in 1977 with Endowment 
support as part of this strateg)'. The 
program represents a unique process 
of collaboration between city agen- 
cies, artists, and the community to 
design and develop parks on open 
parcels of land. The program 
arranges for professional artists to 
play an integral role in planning and 
developing excellent designs for even 
the smallest neighborhood parks and 
potential park sites in the city. 

Seven artists have been commis- 
sioned thus far under the Parklet 
Program to produce public works of 
art. The first parklet art, a wind- 
generated kinetic sculpture of steel 
and brass created by .\lichio Ihara, 
internationally recognized sculptor 
and Cambridge resident for seven- 
teen years, was installed in the cen- 
ter of Central Square's bustling traf- 
fic island. All commissions have 
resulted in innovative collaborations 
between the .\rts Council, City Pub- 



lic Works and Community Develop- 
ment Departments, the artists, and 
community residents. Documenta- 
tion of the process and results are 
currently being compiled for a publi- 
cation to be distributed nationallv'. 

The Parklet Program is part of the 
Council's larger "quality of life" 
focus, \\ hich includes design compe- 
titions, the direct commissions to 
artists for specific projects, and col- 
laboration with other city agencies. 
The results are impressive: thirty- 
five new wall murals; graphics sten- 
ciled on city vehicles to brighten 
their image ("The Works" on Public 
Works trucks); CEl A jobs for 
unemployed artists competitively 
selected; and the Cambridge River 
Festival, a week-long celebration of 
spring and creativity involving hun- 
dreds of Cambridge artists and com- 
munity residents. 

looking to the success of these pro- 
grams, the U.S. Department of 
Transportation awarded the Cam- 
bridge Arts Council a $45,000 grant 
for 1979/80 to initiate a program for 



incorporating decorative and fine 
arts into four subway stations along a 
new extension of the Boston area 
subway system. This project has in 
turn leveraged $64,000 in local funds 
to cover administrative costs and the 
commitment of one percent of sta- 
tion construction costs, or $710,000, 
for approximately twenty major 
commissions for public art. Based on 
these successes, the city of Cam- 
bridge adopted a One Percent for 
.\rt Ordinance in June 1979, where- 
by the city will designate a portion 
of appropriations for capital expendi- 
tures for the acquisition, creation, 
and/or development of art in and 
about city buildings and public facil- 
ities. An estimated $87,500 will be 
made available under this ordinance 
during the next year. 

In all of these programs, the process 
of collaboration between artists, resi- 
dents, and city officials has been cru- 
cial to the successful leveraging of 
seed monies. 

Grantee: 

Cambridge .\rts Council 



Project Directors: 
Pamela Worden, Executive Direc- 
tor, Cambridge .\rts Council and 
Dennis Carlone 
Participants: 

(Collaborators) Conrad Fagone, 
Commissioner, Public \\ Orks 
Department; David \ icker). Assis- 
tant City Manager for Community 
Development; (Ad\ isors) Lowrv 
Burgess, environmental artist; Paul 
Dietrich, Chairman, Cambridge 
Arts Council; Jennifer Dow ley. 
Director, Arts on the Line, Cam- 
bridge Arts Council; (Parklet jury, 
1979/80) Michio Ihara, sculptor; 
Pennv Jencks, sculptor; Bruno 
d'Agostino, architect; (Artists com- 
missioned, 1979/80) Joseph Barbieri, 
.Michael Hachev, Juliet Kepes, Paul 
Matisse, .Mark Mendel, .Michael 
Norton, David Phillips 

/ 

A musical fence , designed by Paul 
Matisse in front of City Hall, Cambridge. 
A quiet, cheerful song is heard by brush- 
ing your hand along each bar in turn. 
Photograph by Steve Wheeler. 



11 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Livable Cities 




Improving New York's 
Restaurant Row 

Working with city agencies, the 
National Endowment for the Arts, 
and a merchants association, the 
West 46th Street Block Association 
will soon implement a street 
improvement plan for the area 
between 8th and lOth Avenues, 
otherwise known as "Restaurant Row." 

Dissatisfied with street improvement 
plans originally developed by the 
city, the West 46th Street commu- 
nity sought NF1\ funding to enable 
Project for Public Places to assess the 
needs and views of residents and res- 
taurant owners and to translate these 
needs into detailed design and man- 
agement recommendations for street 
improvements. Construction to 
begin this year will include sidewalk 
widening, planting of street trees, 
and installation of better signage. 

A fifteen-minute documentary film, 
which describes the process and proj- 
ect as a model for other neighbor- 
hood groups, has been funded by the 
New York State Council on the Arts 
and Exxon Corporation, and is avail- 
able through Project for Public Spaces. 



82 



Grantee: 

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 
President: 
Fred I. Kent III 
Project Directors: 

Stephen Davies and Jennifer Wallace 
Participants: 

Maristella Kelsey, West 46th Street 
Block Association; Louis iMcCagg, 
Linda Anne Leeds, Sue Rieder, 
Marianne Cramer, John Phillips, 
Mayor's Office of .\lidtoun Planning 
and Development; Richard Rosen- 
thal, Lee Weintraub, Tom 
McGinty, Department of Housing 
Preservation and Development; 
Clintom Preservation Office, Steer- 
ing Committee, and Planning Coun- 
cil; Community Board No. 4 

1 

A plan to improve West 46th Street in 
New York shows proposed improvements 
for each street block. Drawing by Project 
for Public Spaces, Inc. 



Revitalizing .New York Communities 

In 1974, a time of fiscal crisis, the 
New York City Planning Depart- 
ment chose to plan for small-scale 
community improvement projects 
requiring few, if any, capital expen- 
ditures, but having the potential for 
making significant positive improve- 
ments in the community. A $50,000 
matching grant from the Ans 
Endowment helped the department 
implement several projects. 

Four communities were chosen for 
improvement: Chinatow n and Union 
Square in Manhattan, .Montague 
Street in the Brooklyn Heights His- 
toric District, and Alexander .\ve- 
nue in the .\Iott Haven Historic Dis- 
trict of the Bronx. They were chosen 
not only for their unique historical 
and cultural heritage but also for dif- 
ficult traffic circulation problems, 
overcrowded narrow streets, and 
deteriorating environmental qualit)'. 

The plans developed strive to involve 
each community in applying for pri- 
vate business and foundation contri- 
butions, and community develop- 
ment and other state and federal 



funding. For example, the Union 
Square Improvement Committee, a 
private coalition, raised $1,275,000 
to modernize the Union Square sul)- 
way station. Construction, now 
under way, should be completed this 
year. 

The projects undertaken and the 
methods used to raise funds and 
involve the communities are 
described in a series of four booklets, 
published on each communitv' by the 
Department of City Planning. 

Grantee: 

New York Department of 

City Planning 

Chairman: 

Herb Sturz 

Executive Director: 

William Donahue 

Project Director: 

Edward L. Cohen, Union Square, 

Chinatow n, Alexander .\ venue 

Project Director: 

Joan C. Wallick, Montague Street 

Participants: 

Carlos Tejada, assistant project 

urban designer, .Alexander .\venue; 



I 



Redesigning Manitou Springs 



Shirley S. Passow, co- project direc- 
tor, Chinatown and chief planner, 
Union Square; Pongporn Sudban- 
thad and Soothorn Boonyatikarn, 
assistant project urban designers. 
Union Square and Chinatown; Mari- 
lyn Gelber, project planner; Robin 
Bums, project urban designer; Phil 
Sacks and Henry Nicholas, graphic 
coordination 

Booklets on Chinatown, Montague 
Street, Union Square, and Alexan- 
der Avenue are available for $2.00 
each from the Map Sales section of 
the Department of City Planning, 
2 Lafayette Street, New York, 
New York 10007, 



The city of Manitou Springs, Colo- 
rado developed and published a 
"Design Plan for Downtown" as a 
way of stimulating economic revital- 
ization and historic preservation, and 
enhancing the visual character of the 
city's central shopping district. 

The document identified the histori- 
cal basis for the design recommenda- 
tions contained in the plan, and then 
provided guidelines for major public 
improvements to public facilities and 
suggestions for the restoration of pri- 
vate buildings for the historic Rocky 
Mountain resort community. At 
present, the exteriors of several build- 
ings recognized in the National Reg- 
ister for Historic Places are being 
rehabilitated as the city undertakes 
the formation of an historic preserva- 
tion district. 



Participants: 

(Architecture and planning) Barber & 
Yergensen — David M. Barber, Direc- 
tor of Planning, James P. Depatie 
and Thomas K. Connoly, produc- 
tion; (Historic research) Preservation 
Services — Elaine Freed and Kathryn 
Barber; (Economic consultants) 
Community Development Associ- 
ates; Planning and Community 
Development Department, Manitou 
Springs 



1 

Guidelines for renovating a block of 
downtown Manitou Springs. These and 
other guidelines were published in a book- 
let and made available to residents and 
merchants. Drawing by Barber &" 
Yergensen, Architects and Planners. 



Grantee: 

City of Manitou Springs, Colorado 

Executive Director: 

Hugh J. King, Jr. 

Project Director: 

Steven L. Obering, Barber & 

Yergensen 



83 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Livable Cities 




An Unbuilt Freeway 



A six-mile swath of barren land 
sweeps through some of Milwaukee's 
old neighborhoods where houses and 
other structures were torn down to 
make way for a freeway. Citizen pro- 
test stopped the freeway, but the 
empty land remains a barrier to the 
reintegration of the bisected neigh- 
borhoods. City planners, architects, 
and university teachers saw the 
vacant land as a design opportunity. 
With Endowment support, the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin and the Park 
West Task Force undertook an 
urban-design study to generate alter- 
natives for reusing the cleared land. 
Extensive dialogue with the commu- 
nity ensued to ensure that proposals 
would reflect citizens' concerns and 
be responsive to their needs. In the 
process, citizens and developers 
increased their understanding of the 
design process and the number of 
reuse opportunities available for 
their neighborhoods. The plan 
chosen calls for residential, commer- 
cial, and industrial projects of excel- 
lent design quality that are compati- 
ble with the existing visual 
characteristics of the neighborhoods. 



The neighborhoods partially 
destroyed by the freew ay clearance 
are composed of solid, upper- and 
lower-middle income homes built in 
the early twentieth century. Most of 
the houses are two-story; all are rich 
in architectural detail. Planners and 
architects realized that the best v\ ay 
to heal the torn-apart neighborhoods 
was to replace the lost housing stock 
with new houses compatible w ith 
the old in scale and style. Many per- 
sons, however, believed that anyone 
in the market for a new house would 
only w ant a single story or split-level 
house of contemporary design. The 
task force obtained Endowment sup- 
port for the urban design research 
necessary to produce aesthetically 
compatible and economically feasi- 
ble plans for the cleared land. 

The problem was to come up with 
urban design proposals that would 
appeal to home buyers, be finan- 
cially feasible for the developers and 
politically acceptable to city hall. 
The result is an excellent publication 
by the task force that includes a dis- 
cussion of urban design and its role 



in enhancing the function and 
appearance of the city, and an explo- 
ration of proposals for six different 
design districts. The document, 
along with an accompanying model, 
has sparked extensive public dia- 
logue. Citizens have become enthusi- 
astic about the project since being 
given the full range of possibilities 
for regenerating their neighbor- 
hoods. The designers have already 
provided assistance to local officials 
and business people in developing 
plans for a farmers' market, \\ hich 
includes ground paving and public 
art. One public park has been com- 
pleted and another is being built. 
Work is now in progress to redraft 
the design proposals as guidelines for 
developers. 

Grantee: 

University of Wisconsin — 

Milwaukee, subcontracted to Park 

West Redevelopment Task Force 

Project Director: 

Lawrence P. Witzling, Ph.D. 

Participants: 

(Urban design) James L. Piwoni, 

John T. Schroeder; (Graphics) 



David Merkel, James L. Piwoni, 
John T. Schroeder; (Communit\' 
planning) David C. Hoeh, AlCP, 
Michael J. Quinn, AICP; (Research) 
Robert .VI. Beckley, AIA, W. Paul 
Farmer, AICP; (Sponsors) Park 
West Redevelopment Task Force, 
University of VV'isconsin — 
Milwaukee, School of Architecture 
and Urban Planning and Division of 
Urban Outreach 
Illustrations: 
David Merkel 



Typical house in one of the neighborhoods 

adjacent to vacant strip cleared for the 

freeway. 

2 

Detail of one of the neighborhood houses. 

Photographs by David Merkel. 



84 




Centre Street Restoration 



The city of Femandina Beach, Flor- 
ida used a $35,000 matching Arts 
Endowment grant to assemble infor- 
mation and plans for a revitalization 
program that combines the Late Vic- 
torian architecture of their main 
street, Centre Street, with twentieth 
century streetscaping. Their prelim- 
inary work earned the city an Eco- 
nomic Development Agency grant of 
$1.35 million in 1977. By May 1978, 
the city had completed the restora- 
tion and revitalization. 

Centre Street was contoured to 
invite pedestrian traffic while retain- 
ing two-way vehicular traffic and on- 
street parking. Telephone and utility 
wires were placed underground and 
new lighting and signage installed. A 
mini-plaza was built at the middle of 
each block, with fountains and 
plazas adorning the courthouse and 
railroad depot. 

The revitalization project has 
resulted in the establishment of six- 
teen new businesses along or adja- 
cent to Centre Street. Visitor traffic 
to the area has increased tremen- 



dously, and over $2 million in pri- 
vate funds have been spent on down- 
town homes and businesses. 

Grantee: 

The City of Femandina Beach, 
Florida 

Executive Directors: 
Grady Courtney, City Manager; 
Arthur I. Jacobs, Atty., Amelia 
Island-Femandina Restoration 
Foundation, Inc.; Don Roberts, 
Amelia Island-Femandina Beach 
Chamber of Commerce 
Project Coordinator: 
Dave Brev\'ster, design consultant, 
Babcock & Schmid 
Participants: 

Centre Street Femandina Merchants 
Association; Femandina Beach His- 
torical District Council; Femandina 
Beach City Commission; Nassau 
County Commission 



The revitalization of Centre Street in 
Femandina Beach, Florida included 
new parking areas and pedestrian walk- 
ways, street lights, benches, and plant- 
ings. Photograph by Karl Holland. 



Urban Quality and the Arts 



Livable Cities 





Waterfront Plan for Eastport, Maine 



Revitalizing Crow n Hill 



The development of a detailed resto- 
ration and revitali/ation plan and 
implementation program for the 
nation's easternmost seaport was 
accomplished by a planning process 
funtled by a small grant from the 
Arts F.ndowment and the city of 
Eastport, Maine. 

The first phase of a long-range mas- 
ter plan designed for the town will 
focus on stabilizing its waterfront, 
long plagued by flooding and ero- 
sion, and improving the commercial 
area in an effort to attract shoppers 
from neighboring communities. 

Bruce Tsuchida of Townscape Asso- 
ciates, Arlington, Massachusetts, led 
both the planning program and the 
exploration of possible reinvestment 
funding sources that culminated in a 
1979 HUD Small Cities Award of 
$1.1 million. 

Grantee: 

City of Eastport, Maine 
Project Planner: 
Bruce Tsuchida 



Participants: 

City Council and Manager, Planning 

Board, Port Authority, Historical 

Society, Chamber of Commerce, 

Marine 1 rades Center, Townscape 

Associates 

/ 

Eastport, Maine's eroded and deteriorat- 
ing waterfront. Photographs by Bruce 
Tsuchida. 



Crown Hill is an older neighbor- 
ho<xl in a typical New England 
town, which in the late nineteenth 
centurv' evoK ed from a farming \ il- 
lage into an industrial city. Dating 
from the 1840s, the oldest houses in 
Crown Hill have seen several periods 
of community growth and decline. 
Today, ow ing to the dedicated 
efforts of the Worcester Cooperation 
Council and other citizens' organiza- 
tions. Crow n Hill is again becoming 
a viable neighborhood w here young 
and old, rich and poor can live. 

Efforts at revitalizing Oow n Hill 
have focused on improx ing the struc- 
tures and environment of the neigh- 
borhood. Local, state, and federal 
groups have made substantial com- 
mitment to the restoration, investing 
more than $8 million during the last 
five years in restoration, reconstruc- 
tion, land acquisition, and lead paint 
removal. 

The Neighborhood in Decline 

Crown Hill is an old, small, residen- 
tial neighborho<xi adjacent to down- 



town Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Once a pleasant neigh borho(xi, in 
recent times Crow n Hill has suffered 
from a dearth of financial resources, 
residents' apathy, a spate of fires, 
and increasing social problems. 
Despite dilapidated houses, disin- 
vestment and increasing instability. 
Crow n Hill had some strengths that 
indicated the possibility of regen- 
eration. The houses, although 
neglected, were structurally sound 
and attractive; area residents were 
committed to the neighborhotxl, and 
Crown Hill is w ithin w alking dis- 
tance of the dow ntow n area. 

By early 1974, local and community 
organizations interested in the revi- 
talization of Crown Hill gave resi- 
dents the impetus to form a new- 
partnership w ith various housing 
and renew al agencies. 

Restoration in Progress 

In 1976, with Endowment assis- 
tance, the U orcester Cooperation 
Council and the Oow n Hill Devel- 
opment Committee hired an archi- 



86 





City Scale Grant Program 



tect-planner to study the problems 
and opportunities in the area. The 
architect designed approaches to 
restoring exterior features of brick- 
and-wood-frame structures; develop- 
ing the open space in the neighbor- 
hood; renovating existing 
commercial facilities; ensuring their 
architectural compatibility with the 
d\\ ellings; and adapting older homes 
to modern lifestyles. 

Residents, supported by a variety of 
national and local groups, launched a 
program to sa\ e abandoned houses; 
designed a mini-park; initiated a 
study to determine alternative uses 
for a school, a Quaker meeting 
house, and se\ eral w arehouses; 
began restoring the facades of com- 
mercial buildings; and replaced 
cement sidewalks w ith brick. With 
hard work and determination, the 
Crow n Hill Development Commit- 
tee and local residents have made 
Crown Hill a showcase of historic 
preservation and urban renewal. 



Grantee: 

Worcester Cooperation Council, 

Inc. 

Project Director: 

Christie I. Baxter, Director of 

Planning, \\ orcester Cooperation 

Council, Inc. 

Participants: 

David \\ . Conover, Architect & 

Planner; Crow n Hill Development 

Committee; Urban Reinvestment 

Task Force; City of \\'orcester; 

Worcester Heritage Preserv ation 

Society 

1 

The Crown Hill neighborhood, the cen- 
tral business district in the background. 
2 

Brick sidewalks under construction. 
3 

Conway Gardens mini-park. 
4 

Congress Street condominiums. 
Photographs courtesy of Worcester Coop- 
eration Council, Inc. 



In 1976, the City-County Planning 
Board of Wlnston-Salem, North 
Carolina undertook a comprehensive 
study of Winston-Salem's center 
city, focusing on the central business 
district, to identify areas w here the 
potential for revitalization was high. 
Those areas where existing buildings 
possessed historical and architectural 
significance w ere targeted for more 
detailed documentation of their 
potential for reuse and given public- 
ity to attract private development. 

The success of the city's planning 
initiative and publicity is indicated 
by several development projects now 
under w ay. The North Carolina 
School of Arts, for example, has 
raised $6 million to turn an historic 
theater and apartment house into a 
downtow n performing center for the 
arts. .\ block of buildings on \\ in- 
ston Square has been bought by a 
group of private corporations and 
donated to the city for use as a major 
arts complex and convention center. 
With and from private funds, the site 
w ill house galleries, performance 
and rehearsal space, an urban park. 



and the offices of Winston-Salem's 
Arts Council. And in the city's his- 
toric Brookstow n Warehouse Dis- 
trict, private developers have pur- 
chased a number of w arehouses, 
w hich they are renovating for mixed 
use as commercial and residential 
space. 

Grantee: 

City-County Planning Board, City 
of Winston-Salem 
Executive Director: 
John A. Donnelly, Director of 
Planning 
Project Directors: 

(Urban design section) Jack Rupplin, 
Richard Redding, Mauro Mercanti, 
Joe Jackson 
Participants: 

Citv-County Planning Board .staff. 
The Arts Council, Center City- 
Task Force 

/ 

Architect's rendering of renovation under 
way. Renderings by Jack Rupplin, 
Mauro Mercanti, Richard Redding. 



87 



Professional 
Research 



Professional Research 



Ovenievv 



Michael Brill 




On initial encounter, the concepts of 
tlcsign and research appear to l)e 
contradictory. However, the need 
for and logic of design research 
becomes clear if we consider that, of 
all decisions, design decisions most 
affect the fit between human needs, 
activities, behaviors, and the built or 
produced environment. Design can 
clearly support or enhance human 
endeavor or it can make it uncomfort- 
able, difficult, nonpnxiuctive, or 
impossible. Design research has as 
its goal improving the fit between 
people and environment, and by 
doing so using resources wisely. 

In periods of economic plenty, 
design has frequently emphasized 
taste and aesthetics rather than a 
concern for appropriateness, and has 
squandered society's resources in 
this emphasis— not just capital 
resources at the time of building or 
making, but operating resources sub- 
sequently in the use, operation, and 
maintenance of places and things. 
Energy consciousness, or the lack of 
it, in design is an easy example of 
this pervasive problem. How the sun 



moves and \\ hat it does to buildings 
is ancient lore — forgotten, or vvorse, 
ignored in a recent period of effu- 
siveness — and the sealed glass box is 
our expensive legacy. 



Research by Designers 

Research is an appropriate undertak- 
ing for designers; it enables them to 
enrich design by fitting it better to 
the environment, to husband 
resources, to provide more humane 
places and objects. Design research 
is concerned \\ ith improving the 
quality of life by developing a frame- 
work for design decisions and gener- 
ating know ledge useful to design 
and design policy. A concern for the 
quality of life as a goal demands that 
the value base used in research be 
made explicit, and the results under- 
sto(Kl in that context; for design 
research is never innocent of values 
as scientific research strives to be. 
Rather, design research must explore 
human needs in its perceptual, behav- 
ioral, and emotional responses to 
environmental phenomena. 



Research Sponsored by the Arts 
Endowment 

Until recently, the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts pnjgram in design 
has not had a category of research; as 
a result none of the grants reviewed 
by the panelists v\ ere funded in a 
research category, and many w ere 
not originally seen as research by the 
Endow ment or, in some cases, by 
their authors. Although the grants 
review ed in this category comprised 
something of a grab-bag, what was 
surprising was how much of the 
work undertaken really is research, 
and how much of it is of fine quality. 
Ihere w ere also works that fit no 
category and clearly are not 
research, but whose excellent quality 
the review ers recognized in a spirit 
of "let's not exclude anything that's 
excellent, research or not." 



Panelists (from left to right in photo- 
graph) John Eberhard,John Zeisel, 
Michael Brill. 



90 



The Criteria Used 



A set of criteria agreed upon in 
advance by the three reviewers was 
used as a guideHne rather than in an 
explicit and quantifiable way. The 
more a work satisfied a criterion, or 
the more it met all the criteria, the 
better the reviewers liked it. The five 
criteria were: 

• The core of the work had to exhibit 
the human concerns for improving 
the quality of life. 

• 1 he uork had to deal with a signifi- 
cant problem or issue. 

• The work had to be considered 
unique (not, for example, yet another 
study of Harvard Square). 

• 1 he work had to be elegant — in 
concept, in approach, in method, in 
conclusions, and in presentation. 

• The work had to be in a useful form 
for its potential users and, therefore, 
complete. 

Two other criteria were discussed 
but not used, as they were seen as 
inappropriate for this review: One 
was cost versus benefit. Did we get a 
lot for the money? The other was 
relative deprivation, a concept 



whereby good work from little- 
known people of smaller towns or 
small firms is seen as better than 
work of identical quality from well- 
known people, large cities, or big 
firms — to make up, as it were, for a 
deprived environment. 

1 he works reviewed also suggested 
a hierarchy of utility in the sense that 
certain types of work are inherently 
more useful than others. Utility is 
largely independent of content but 
dependent on the conceptual stage 
the work is in when it is published 
(or when the money runs out). 
Going from least to most useful to a 
larger public, the hierarchy is: 

The collection. 1 he collection and dis- 
play of all the items in a set, which 
may include the analysis of individ- 
ual items against some criteria. 
Joseph Koncelik's ".\ging and the 
Product Environment," a reference 
compendium of products used in 
buildings designed for the elderly, is 
useful to designers and managers of 
such environments. 



The collection analyzed, .\long with 
the set, a text is presented, based on 
seeking and finding relevant patterns 
across the collection, which perhaps 
shows a taxonomy for organizing the 
set. Comparative Urban Design, Rare 
Engravings, 1830—1843, a book by 
Melville Branch, shows thirty-six 
gloriously drawn maps of cities, all 
drawn in an eleven-year span in the 
nineteenth century which, with their 
text, afford the scholar a rare oppor- 
tunity to understand physical form 
and the urban design of cities in dif- 
ferent countries at the same moment 
in hi.story. 

The collection analyzed and interpreted. 
Along with analysis, a text attributes 
meaning to it and linkages to other 
phenomena or bodies of knowledge, 
and makes recommendations for 
using the knowledge. Lx)uis VVasser- 
man's exciting roller coaster of a 
work on amusement theme parks, 
conceptualized as the motiern ver- 
sion of the Renaissance festival, that 
creative hurly-burly marriage of all 
the arts, is an extensive look at their 
genesis in visual and conceptual .sys- 



tems, their social histor)', their 
design elements, their economics, 
and finally, their future. 

The collection analyzed, interpreted, and 
new concepts offered. Along v\ ith inter- 
pretation, a text offers a new con- 
ceptual framework or paradigm in 
which to understand the work, open- 
ing the u ay for new work. \\ illiam 
Huffs lifelong obsession with sym- 
metry and its place in man's con- 
sciousness has produced six slender 
volumes about the drive tow ard 
"geometrizing and perceptualizing" 
in basic design. By looking at the 
natural environment and living 
things; at crystalline structures and 
physics and chemistry; at architec- 
ture, poetry, music, painting, and 
sculpture; at games and dance; and at 
concepts of the universe, he presents 
us w ith examples of .symmetry from 
all these and comments on their 
development and meaning. Further- 
more, he develops a form-generating 
process and demonstrates its utility 
by generating forms of symmetry 
never found. 



91 



Professional Research 



Over\iew 



What's Next? 



If the Kndowment, without really 
trying to fund research, has protluced 
so much of good quality and some 
ot extraordinary quality, then its 
newly instituted program, which 
really ^o« consciously fund research, 
deser\ es support by the research 
community, policymakers, and 
design practitioners— the users of 
design research. Assuming the pro- 
gram grows in stature, we hope that 
at some point, the P.ndo\\ ment will 
i)ecome/>roactive, rather than reac- 
tive, and itself suggest important 
researchable issues. We offer this 
suggestion for only part of the 
research budget, for the unique or 
risky idea must still be supported. 
Design research is, to a large extent, 
an orphan within the federal govern- 
ment, wandering and resting for 
only a moment at the National Insti- 
tute of Mental Health, the National 
Bureau of Standards, the Depart- 
ment of Housing and Urban Devel- 
opment, the Army Corps of Kngi- 
neers, the Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, the Depart- 
ment of Energy, and at the National 
Science Foundation, to leave again 



when missions change, when inef- 
fective quick-fixes are sought, or 
when individual advocates for design 
research in these agencies go else- 
w here. The Endow ment's provision 
of a home (maybe just a room) for 
this orphan is commendable and 
necessarv. 



92 



Professional Research 



Architectural History' 



'tl!:i> 





Comparative Urban Design, 

IH 30- 1843 

A magnificent series of engravings of 
urban map-plans, published in Great 
Britain in the first half of the nine- 
teenth century by the aptly named 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge are presented and dis- 
cussed from the view point of urban 
design in a splendid book by Melville 
C. Branch. Over a period of many 
years. Dr. Branch collected t\\ enty- 
six of the forty remarkable map- 
plans included in the lK)ok from 
obscure bookstores in P.urope (the 
remaining fourteen are in the rare 
book collection at the University of 
California at Los Angeles) and incor- 
porated them into an elegant, over- 
sized book of tipped-in plates and 
arcane and detailed information 
about the patterns of growth in these 
cities in eighteen countries around 
the globe. 

The author not only shows the phys- 
ical development of these major 
urban centers, but identifies the 
dominant characteristic of each city's 
urban design. Because the map of 
Geneva shows its fortifications occu- 
pying more land than the rest of the 



city, his commentary highlights the 
urban defenses. Paris and St. Peters- 
burg are viewed in terms of their 
Renaissance design patterns; Dublin 
in relation to crowded living condi- 
tions; Warsaw for the effects of its 
tumultuous political histor\' on its 
urban pattern; and \ enice for its 
excellent transportation system by 
water. Beyond thematic particulari- 
ties, such effects on urban design as 
site selection, ruling authoritv, reli- 
gion, historical events, and defense 
strategies are considered. 

The maps are beautifully executed 
drypoint steel engt'avings w hich 
invite the reader to consider the 
changing economic, political, and 
social forces that shape urban form, 
structures, and open space as 
expres.sed in Dr. Branch's commen- 
tar\'. Comparative Urban Design w as 
included in the 1979 Western Book 
Kxhibition and catalogue of the 
Rounce and Coffin Club, and the 
Bookbuilders West Book Show 1979 
and its catalogue of w inners of its 
Certificate of Merit. 



Grantee and Project Director: 

Melville C. Branch 

Participants: 

Ciraphic typesetting Ser\ice; Penn 

Lithographs, Inc., printers; Hiller 

Industries, Inc., bookbinders 

Comparative Urban Designs, Rare 
Engravings, 1830—1843, published by 
the University of Southern Califor- 
nia and Arno Press, 1978. 

1 

Geneva, Switzerland, 1841. More than 
any other city, Geneva at this time ex- 
emplifies the complexity and extent of 
Vauban type fortifications. The sav: tooth 
pattern at the outer edge of these defenses 
is calculated to permit crossfire upon 
attackers, giving them no shelter close 
to the walls to use scaling ladders. The 
peripheral fortifications of Geneva at this 
time take up as much space on the ground 
as the land within the city walls housing 
the population. Drawing courtesy of 
Melville C. Branch. 



Documenting the Architecture 
of the United States 

After twelve years of work and 
135,OOOmiles of driving, G. E. 
Kidder Smith has completed the 
monumental research effort he 
started in 1967 to document in words 
and pictures architecture in the 
United States. Assisted by his wife 
Dorothea, Smith traveled to each of 
the fifty states to survey and photo- 
graph more than three thousand 
examples of outstanding American 
architecture dating from the twelfth 
centurv Pueblo period to the 
present. 

The basic research, supported in 
part by two F^ndou ment grants, 
produced a Smithsonian traveling 
exhibit entitled "America's Architec- 
tural Heritage" (now circulating); an 
hour-long public television docu- 
mentary, ".\n Architectural Odys- 
sey w ith Kidder Smith"; and a tw o- 
volume publication, A Pictorial 
History of Architecture in America, the 
most comprehensive pictorial survey 
of United States architecture ever 
undertaken. Illustrated with more j 
than eight hundred black-and-w hite \ 
briefly annotated photographs, A 



94 



Pictorial History contains introduc- 
tory essays to each section of the 
country, which describe the ways in 
which architecture reflects social his- 
tory. The first volume highhghts the 
architecture of New England, the 
mid-Atlantic States, and the South; 
the second volume covers the Mid- 
west, the Southwest, the Plains and 
the Rockies, the Far West, and the 
Pacific. 

Kidder Smith's current undertaking, 
a 600,000-word, three-volume Guide 
to the Architecture of the United States, 
intended to serve as a guidebook- 
encyclopedia on American architec- 
ture, is scheduled for publication in 
1981. Of the original three thousand 
buildings sur\eyed in A Pictorial His- 
tory, some one thousand four hun- 
dred have been critically appraised 
for the Guide and documented with 
one or two photographs. One may 
expect that Kidder Smith's advice in 
the introduction to his fir.st guide- 
book, The New Architecture in Europe, 
will hold for his .second: 



Look closely at the man-made chaos which 
surrounds so many of us so much of the 
time. Then examine the structures shown 
on these pages, for in addition to reward- 
ing as any work of art rewards, they can 
hone our appreciation of the elements of 
quality in our environment. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
G. E. Kidder Smith 
Participant: 
Dorothea Smith 

A Pictorial History of Architecture in 
America, published by .\merican 
Heritage, 1976. 

Guide to the Architecture of the United 
States, to be published this year by 
the -Museum of .Modern .\rt and 
Doubled ay. 

1 

Elkhom, Montana, 1870s. 

2 

Morris A. Mechanic Theater, Baltimore, 

Maryland, 1966. John M. Johansen, 

architect. Photographs by G. E. Kidder 

Smith. 



Prehistoric and Early .\rchitecture 
in the Eastern United States 

.\ fascination with the art of shaping 
earth into primitive architectural 
designs enticed William .Morgan to 
take a twelve-year odyssey through 
an area bounded by the Great Lakes 
on the north, the Great Plains on the 
west, the Gulf of .Mexico, and the 
.Atlantic Ocean. In his research, he 
examined the relationship of the 
architecture to the topography in 
those prehistoric and early .settle- 
ments in which earth-oriented archi- 
tecture predominated. As the study 
progressed, Morgan found it neces- 
sary to examine both large earth 
masses and excavations. Spurred on 
by a careful look at Frank Lloyd 
VVright's inquiries into earth archi- 
tecture, the lack of extant data on the 
region for the period from 220 B.C. 
to A.D. 1.500, and an interest in the 
.symbolism of many of the forms he 
encountered, .Morgan .studied more 
than four hundred sites, selecting 
eighty -two for inclusion in a book 
soon to be published by .MFF Press. 
The book includes scale drawings, 
colored maps, and aerial photographs 
of the sites. In his introduction .Mor- 
gan intimates that one particular 



value of such a study lies in the dis- 
cover)- and recording of primal 
forms that may be significant for 
contemporarv' architecture. Symbol- 
ism and the use of symbolic forms in 
building or landscaping change as 
the needs, fashions, tastes, and 
beliefs of successive generations 
change. .Morgan's interdisciplinar)' 
investigation into the elements of 
earth architecture offers an exciting 
glimpse into the artistic accomplish- 
ments of some of the early inhabi- 
tants of .\merica. 

Grantee: 

Jacksonville University 
Project Director: 
William .Morgan, F.\I.\ 
Participants: 

Dr. Stephen Williams and Dr. 
Jeffrey P. Brain, Peabotiy .Museum, 
Har\ ard University; Dr. James B. 
Griffin, .\rchaeologist. University of 
.Michigan; Dr. Eduard Sekler, Har- 
vard Graduate School of Design; 
Arthur Drexler, .Museum of .Modern 
.\rt. New York; Dr. William P. B. 
Ebert, AIA 



95 



Professional Research 



Architectural I listory 





Supemiannerism 



Building with Frank Lloyd Wright 



In the 1960s a small group of artists 
and architects quietly began an 
attack on the "Modern" movement 
that had dominated American archi- 
tecture and design since World War 
II. The multi-faceted attack became 
a revolution, and the revolution later 
created a style of its own, appropri- 
ately dubbed "Post-Modern." 

In the vanguard of the Post-Modern 
movement, C. Ray Smith, architec- 
ture critic and historian, has v\ ritten 
a treatise entitled Supermannerism: 
New Attitudes in Post-Modem Architec- 
ture about the revolution against the 
style Modern and the beginning of 
the Post-Modern movement. In 
opposition to the Modern move- 
ment, early Post-Modern forms of 
design and architecture explore and 
use ambiguity and disorientation; 
wit and whimsy; pop symbols; his- 
toricism and decoration; superimpo- 
sition and layering; adaptability and 
open-endedness. 

Smith's book summarizes .American 
architecture and design in the 1960s, 
especially the revolutionary school 



that has become know n as The 
Grays (Charles Moore, Robert 
Venturi, and Hugh Hardy) and 
their \\ orks, inspirations, and influ- 
ence, and catalogues the beginnings 
of the Post-Modern movement 
(1969-1971). 

Grantee and Project Director: 
C. Ray Smith 

Supermannerism: New Attitudes in 
Post-Modern Architecture, published 
by E. P. Dutton, 1977. 

1,2 

Early in the 1960s, the two leaders of 
what author C. Ray Smith calls the 
Supermannerist movement expressed their 
rebellion against the Modern movement. 
In these collage portraits, architect Robert 
Venturi (left) and architect Charles 
Moore (right) burst the chains of Modern- 
ism to lay the foundations ofPost- 
Modernism. Photographs by C. Ray 
Smith. 



In the midst of the depression, with 
affordable housing scarce, Herbert 
and Katherine Jacobs arrived in 
.Madison, Wisconsin. Young and full 
of hope, they were undaunted by the 
fact they had no suitable place to 
live, and very little financial means 
of altering that situation. 

With the brashness that is charming 
in youth, the Jacobses decided to 
hire America's architectural genius, 
Frank Lloyd Wright, to design them 
a house. With the statement, "What 
America needs is a five thousand dol- 
lar house," Wright agreed, and so 
began a \\ arm and unusual relation- 
ship that spanned a quarter of a cen- 
tur)- and saw the design of three 
extraordinary houses and construc- 
tion of two. Now , more than forty 
years after that first exchange, Her- 
bert Jacobs has set down, w ith the 
help of letters, working blueprints, 
and pictures, the joyful story of 
those houses and the personal rela- 
tionship that fostered them. 

Earlier, with the help of an .\rts 
Endowment grant, all of the letters. 



blueprints, hundreds of negatives of 
the two Jacobs houses, and some of 
the Wright building, w ere given to 
the Burnham Architectural Librar\' 
of the Art Institute of Chicago. 

Wright's first design for the Jacobses 
became his famous "Lsonia No. 1," 
the low-cost house that startled the 
architectural world w hen it was built 
in 1937. Then, after five years in 
their Usonian house and another six 
in an old farmhouse, the Jacobses 
were ready to participate in another 
adventure w ith W right. And adven- 
ture it w as! 

Wright w as ready w ith his solar 
hemicycle, which was, in the w ords 
of Jacobs, "a house that enchanted 
us." This time the site, as w ell as the 
cost, w as a challenge. In selecting an 
appropriate locale, Wright w alked 
over the Jacobs property until he 
made his definitive choice, remark- 
ing in passing, "Never build on top 
of your best view . Build near it, and 
w alk to it, and you'll appreciate it 
more." 



96 




Modem Housing Prototypes 



Acting on his words, Wright created 
an unprecedented experience: a 
house in \\ hich earth w as banked 
against stone walls for protection 
against the Wisconsin v\ inter \\ inds 
and for privacy; a living area in 
which a single, flowing space 
reached out to embrace the garden 
and gather in the solar wamith w ith 
a cur\ed expanse of glass; an envi- 
ronment in which the sleeping quar- 
ters were five airy bedrooms on a 
balcony; a home arrived at through a 
tunnel in the earth berm — quiet, 
simple, subdued, before the sudden 
burst of dazzling, sunlit openness. 

The memoir Jacobs w rote on 
Wright, based on the annotated 
archives now in the Bumham 
Library, is filled with photographs 
of the two houses in the process of 
development and in use. But most of 
all it is a recounting of the remark- 
able relationship between the family 
and the creative genius who breathed 
life into the structure. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Herbert .\. Jacobs 



Participant: 
Katherine Jacobs 

Building with Frank Lloyd Wright, 
published by Chronicle Books, 1979. 



The second Jacobs house, the Solar Hemi- 
cycle, built by Frank Lloyd Wright in 
1948. The berm which helped give earth- 
temperatures and protection from north 
winds shows at one end of the house. 
2 

Wright provided this furniture layout in 
a drawing which is virtually identical to 
the floor plan of the house. All measure- 
ments for doors, windows , fireplace , pool, 
and bedroom partitions are six degrees, or 
multiples of six degrees, of an arc mea- 
sured from a stake in the center of the 
sunken garden . Photograph courtesy of 
the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. 
3 

The Solar Hemicycle as it appeared two 
years after construction. In the fore- 
ground is the sunken garden. Photographs 
by Ezra Stoller. 



Modem Housing Prototypes, a hand- 
somely illustrated book containing 
notable examples of multi-family 
housing from four continents, is the 
result of a study by architect and 
University of Southern California 
professor Roger Sherw ood 
to review international housing 
prototypes. 

On the premise that housing is the 
most important branch of architec- 
ture, Sherwood believes that much 
can be learned from the study of sig- 
nificant international examples from 
the recent past. The book gives 
thirty-two examples of multi-family 
housing designed by such masters as 
Frank Lloyd Wright, LeCorbusier, 
Mies van der Rohe, and Alvar Aalto. 
In discussing these \\ ell-known pro- 
totypes, Sherw ood considers the 
social, environmental, and financial 
factors the architect had to consider 
in each and points out creative solu- 
tions to particular problems. 

The information and illustrations in 
the book w ere also prepared as a 
Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition. 



Grantee and Project Director: 
Roger Sherwood 

Modem Housing Prototypes, published 
by Har\ ard University Press, 1978. 



Porte Molitor, axonometric drawing, 
Le Corbusier, Paris, 1933. 



97 



Professional Research 



Architectural History 










The Art of Engineering 



Evidence of the intimate relationship 
between art and science finds an 
inspiring example in the twentieth 
century bridges designed by the 
Swiss engineer Robert Maillart. 
David Billington, author of Robert 
Maillart' s Bridges: The Art of Engineer- 
ing, undertook a study in 1977 to 
explore the value of Maillart's ideas 
to contemporary American engi- 
neers and designers. 

Billington used Maillart's theories on 
the significance of aesthetics in struc- 
tural design as the underlying prem- 
ises for the writings and lectures he 
was developing at Princeton Univer- 
sity as part of his study. He focused 
on two factors influencing Maillart's 
work: the development of reinforced 
concrete in the early twentieth cen- 
tury and the educational, political, 
and S(x;ial milieu of Switzerland at 
the time. On these Billington built a 
framework for lectures that relate the 
ideals of Maillart to those of contem- 
porary structural designers, and that 
place concerns common to structural 
engineers since the industrial revolu- 
tion in historical perspective. Within 



this framework, he assesses scientific 
concepts involving the efficiency of 
materials in relation to concerns for 
safety against failure; economy of 
construction in relation to benefits to 
the community; and such symbolic 
concerns as the aesthetics of personal 
expression weighed against service to 
the public. 

Robert Maillart's own ideals were 
"striking appearance, efficiency of 
materials, and competitive cost." His 
graceful concrete bridges, con- 
structed on simple and unprece- 
dented technical ideas, were highly 
expressive visual forms. His design 
for the Salginatobel Bridge near 
Schiers, for example, was chosen for 
construction because it was the least 
expensive proposal: years later, it 
became the focus for the first art 
museum exhibition ever devoted to 
pure engineering (held at the 
Museum of Modern Art in 1947). 

The bridge is only one of the many 
of Maillart's structures that exem- 
plify his belief that "efficiency and 
elegance are merely aspects of the 



same design seen from the perspec- 
tive of science and art; the essence of 
engineering lies in the integration of 
the two by the connecting link of 
economy." 

From this study of Maillart's work, 
David Billington has put together a 
traveling exhibition on the bridges of 
Christian Menn and developed a 
new course at Princeton, "Structures 
and the Urban Environment." 

Grantee and Project Director: 
David P. Billington 
Participants: 

J. Wayman Williams, consultant; 
Peter Bunnell and Fred Licht, Direc- 
tors, Princeton University' Art 
Museum; Madame M.,C. Blumer- 
Maillart and E. Blumer of Zurich, 
collaborators; Christian Menn of 
Chur, advisor/collaborator; D. P. 
Billington, Jr., E. N. Billington, and 
J. Billington, research assistants 



Schwandbach Bridge, Switzerland, 
1933. Designed by Robert Maillart. 
Photograph by Losinger. 
2 

Lilac Road Bridge in southern Califor- 
nia, 1978, showing Maillart's influence. 
3 

Metal cooling tower, Schneehausen , 
Germany. 
4 

Sludge digestion tanks at Grosslapen, out- 
side Munich, Germany. Photographs by 
David Billington, except where noted. 



98 




Fitting New Buildings with Old 

Turn certain corners in Amsterdam, 
New York, or London, and it hits 
you — hard. A new building of 
chrome and glass, pushing up 
against a centuries- or even just dec- 
ades-old structure of spires and fili- 
gree and lacy masonry. A brash new 
intruder in an already established 
and architecturally defined setting. 

The growing incidence of misfit 
architecture has prompted Brent C. 
Brolin to write Architecture in Con- 
text: Fitting New Buildings with Old, 
in which he argues that "we should 
emphasize visual harmony, insuring 
that new buildings fit into their con- 
texts sympathetically, rather than 
following intellectualizations about 
what architecture should or should 
not be." Through nearly one hun- 
dred illustrated examples of contem- 
porary and historical buildings, 
shown in relation to the environ- 
ments in which they were placed, 
Brolin supports his hypothesis about 
the kind of visual relationship that 
should exist between a new building 
and its architectural setting. He chal- 
lenges some of the accepted guide- 



lines for harmonizing new with 
old— such as the use of similar mass- 
ing and materials, and the continua- 
tion of existing cornice lines — 
showing buildings that break these 
cardinal rules, yet remain in har- 
mony with their surroundings. 
Brolin holds that the key to many of 
these successes is the use of an archi- 
tectural ornament. He stresses the 
fundamental importance of respect- 
ing the "spirit of the place" rather 
than the "spirit of the times." 

Brolin advocates the fostering of vi- 
sual awareness, stressing the impor- 
tance of the "educated eye" for resi- 
dent, visitor, and designer. But he 
strongly criticizes those design prac- 
titioners who cling to esoteric theo- 
ries rather than consider the possibil- 
ity that architectural ideology may 
have to take a back seat to simple vi- 
sual fact: what does the building look 
like next to its neighbors? 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Brent C. Brolin 



Architecture in Context: Fitting New 
Buildings with Old, published by Van 
Nostrand, Reinhold, Young, 1980. 

/ 

Left: Old Recorder's House, 1535-31; 
right: Town Hall, 1376-1420, Bruges, 
Belgium. Before modernism , architects 
and crafismen understood how to relate 
new to old even when the buildings were 
radically different in style. This example 
blends Renaissance (left) with Gothic and 
still overcomes a significant 2 :1 height 
difference with remarkable grace. Con- 
temporary views about fitting new build- 
ings into existing contexts usually stress 
general rules like maintaining the cornice 
height. Here is a building that violates 
this cardinal rule and still succeeds admi- 
rably. Like many other examples Brolin 
has documented, it works because it cre- 
ates a sympathetic visual texture through 
the skillful use of ornament. 
2 

Hancock Tower, Boston, /. M. Pei Asso- 
ciates, 1973. Surprisingly successful jux- 
taposition of a sixty-story skyscraper on 
an historic square. Richardson's Trinity 
Church is reflected in the Towers mirror- 
glass curtain wall, whose trapezoidal 



angles diminish its own presence enough 
to preserve the ground level dominance of 
the church. Photographs by Brent C. 
Brolin. 



99 



Professional Research 



Design Research 



Journal of Architectural Education 



l he Journal of Architectural Education 
(JAE) is a quarterly publication of 
the Association of Collegiate Schools 
of Architecture (ACSA). Published 
since 1947, in the past five years the 
JAE has blossomed into a major 
forum for the exchange of ideas in 
the built environment. 

Ihc JAE focuses on a u ide variety of 
topics pertaining to the theory, 
teaching, and practice of environ- 
mental design. F'^ach year, three 
issues are devoted to exploring spe- 
cific topics in-depth. The fourth is 
an "open" issue in which a range of 
subjects and current concerns is 
addressed. Distinguished figures in 
architectural education serve as guest 
editors for the three topic issues, 
which are selected by the .\CS.\ 
Publication Committee. 

Over the past few years, special 
topics of the JAE have included 
energy, politics and design symbol- 
ism, aging, preservation and conser- 
vation, teaching the landscape, natu- 
ral di.sasters and fire, and the history 
of architectural education in the 



United States. Editors and contribu- 
tors have included Donlyn Lyndon, 
Albert Speer, J. B.Jackson, 
Lawrence Anderson, .Michael 
Graves, Charles .Moore, James .Mar- 
.ston Pitch, Robert Gutman, Nicho- 
las Negroponte, Chester Hartman, 
Jean Paul Carlhian, and Jean Labatut. 

\hc JAE is distributed uorldw ide to 
more than four thousand faculty, 
practitioners, libraries, and others 
interested in the built environment. 
Ever)' faculty member in the archi- 
tectural programs in the United 
States and Canada receives a copy by 
virtue of membership in .\CS.\. In 
addition, individual memberships 
and subscriptions are available. 

The journal is probably one of the 
more freewheeling avenues of ex- 
pression in the field. .\s it addresses 
the various aspects of design under 
the guidance of the different guest 
editors, it carries no particular slant 
or bias except a strong concern for 
improv ing the quality of architec- 
tural education and, ultimately, the 
profession. Contributions are 



encouraged from junior faculty as 
well as from those u ith distin- 
guished reputations. But the JAE 
alw ays strives to be infomiative and 
intriguing, bringing new perspec- 
tives to familiar issues as well as rais- 
ing new subjects for consideration 
by the academic community and the 
profession. 

In the 1980-81 volume year, the 
JAE will publish issues on the fol- 
low ing four topics: "How Not to 
Teach History," edited by Wayne 
Attoe and Charles .Moore; "tech- 
nics," edited by John Reynolds, Fxl 
.\llen, and .Mien Levy; "The Social 
Sciences in Architecture," edited by 
Joseph Juhasz; and the "Open" issue 
edited by Jeffrey Chusid. 

Grantee: 

.Association of Collegiate Schools 

of Architecture, Inc. 

Project Director: 

David Clarke, Executive Pxlitor 

Participants: 

Carv er Composition, setters; 

Lee Nocera, .\ccounting Executive, 

Halliday-Tyler Printers 



Subscriptions are available from 
ACSA, 1735 New York .\venue, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 



100 




Structure in Nature Is a 
Strateg)' for Design 

Nature is orderly, standardized, and 
symmetrical. Man needs diversity 
and change. Because nature provides 
the building blocks of man, symme- 
tr\' in nature and diversity in design 
must be irrevocably linked. 

Working from this premise, Peter 
Pearce has spent thirteen years 
exploring the relationship between 
structure in nature and in the man- 
made environment. Among the theo- 
ries he advances is the notion of 
"minimum inventory /maximum 
diversity" systems, in which there 
are simplified components that can 
be combined according to certain 
rules of assemblage. Because the 
rules are facilitating rather than con- 
stricting, the resulting set, or sys- 
tem, represents a maximum yield in 
terms of diversity. 

To illustrate this principle, Pearce 
uses the snowflake: all planar snow 
crystals have the symmetry of a reg- 
ular hexagon, yet no two snowflakes 
are exactly alike. Sphere packings, 
soap bubbles, polyhedra, and other 
fundamental structures are likevv ise 



used to illustrate minimum energy 
principles. 

In 1978, MIT Press published 
Pearce's work on the theory and 
practicality of three-dimensional 
spatial systems in a book. Structure in 
Nature Is a Strategy for Design. Picking 
up where his book leaves off, 
Pearce's company, Synestructics, 
Inc. , is producing space frames and 
other structural systems that illus- 
trate his principles and is find- 
ing practical applications for 
them in residential and commercial 
architecture. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Peter Pearce 



An assembly of eight volumetric regions 
for a six-tunnel cubic labyrinth built 
from 90°, 120° saddle hexagons compris- 
ing a continuous surface to its triangu- 
lated approximation . Photograph by 
Peter Pearce/ Synestructics, Inc. 



101 



Professional Research 



Design Research 




Energy, Stability, and Form 



For tens of thousands of years, 
plants and animals have adapted 
themselves to the environment in a 
self-organi/ing, self-stabilizing way. 
Without technology, they have auto- 
matically limited the growth and dis- 
tribution of their communities so 
that, v\ hilc preserving the dynamic 
balance of nature, they both benefit 
and are protected from nature's 
cyclic forces. 

In recent times, people have, for the 
most part, gotten away with disre- 
garding nature in the building of 
their communities. Because we have 
built houses, workplaces, and towns 
one at a time, the instability intro- 
duced into a site has been small, and 
the site has been able to recover its 
dynamic balance without much dan- 
ger or disturbance. But when we 
develop whole sites at once — 
building, say, five hundred houses 
or an entire industrial complex— the 
self-organizing changes of nature can 
occur at a cataclysmic rate. In fact, 
such changes (in the form of erosion, 
mudslides, and floods) are already 
causing millions of dollars in prop- 



erty damage every year and even loss 
of life. 

Stabilit\' is a serious and growing 
concern. By ignoring the way natu- 
ral elements act on a form (or the 
w ay form responds to the elements), 
we are losing something of equal 
importance: energy efficiency. 
Instead of placing buildings on a site 
to take advantage of normal daily 
and seasonal changes, v\ e put them 
anywhere — and then compensate for 
those changes with the addition of 
energy -consuming heating and cool- 
ing systems. 

From 1962 to 1972, Ralph Knowles, 
professor of architecture at the Uni- 
versity of Southern California, 
guided the creative and intelligent 
research that makes these concepts 
seem so simple and logical to us now 
Originally intending improvement 
of the urban environment through 
design that gave "clues to orienta- 
tion," Knowles began his research 
with a study of sun-earth geometry 
as it affects heat and light, publish- 
ing a wonderfully clear treatise on 



the subject in 1967. His work 
increasingly focused on form 
response to natural forces, and in 
1968 Know les began a case study 
of Owens \ alley, California, to 
de\ elop ecological framew orks for 
locating and forming buildings to 
maximize their stability and energy 
efficiency. He also published an 
excellent slide lecture, "Form and 
Stability," w hich demonstrated the 
principles behind his work. 

The first phase of the Owens Valley 
study w as completed and published 
in 1969, the second in 1972. Two 
years later, MIT Press published 
Knowlcs's Energy and Form, the 
culmination and synthesis of his 
research and, in a sense, a guidebook 
for the future. Know les preaches 
that architecture must be oriented to 
the environment. This means that 
we can no longer design buildings 
v\ ith the "single-structure" mentality 
that considers each house in isolation 
and builds each the same size and 
shape regardless of such factors as 
hill slope and other-building proxim- 
ity. Instead, we must build interac- 



tive networks that use increments 
of growth appropriate to the site. 

Using a kind of three-dimensional 
graphing technique, Knowles and 
his staff have designed and built 
models of buildings that respond 
to solar and gravitational forces 
through control of shape, .structure, 
scale, surface/volume ratio, location, 
insolation, and insulation. Even 
from a visual standpoint alone, they 
are sensible, appealing, and varied. 

Since the publication oi Energy and 
Form in 1974, Know les has devel- 
oped a concept of solar zoning called 
the "solar envelope." The solar enve- 
lope is a means of ensuring solar 
access to the inhabitants of neighbor- 
ing buildings by delineating the 
volumetric relationships of new 
buildings to old. In other w ords, it 
protects people's "sun rights." This 
research will be published this year 
under the title Sun, Rhythm, and Form. 
With this publication, Know les has 
not lost sight of his goal of improv- 
ing the quality of urban life in the 
society of the future. 



102 




.J^^aa^pv^s^^ 




Symmetry 



Grantee and Project Director: 
Ralph L. Knowles 
Participants: 

Fourth-year architecture students 
from Auburn University in Alabama 
(1962—63); Third-year architecture 
students from the University of 
Southern California (1965-68); 
Graduate students in urban design 
from the University of Southern 
California (1968-70) 



One of a series of models built to explore 
the effects of the sun on building form. 
Model by G. Freedman, S. Panja, 
R. Yanagawa. 



Everyone who has ever thrown a 
pebble into a pool to watch with 
pleasure its rippling effect, gazed 
with awe through a microscope at a 
dividing cell, or contemplated the 
nature of the universe from a grassy 
hillside on a starry night has some 
understanding of the role of symme- 
try in nature. In his six-part work, 
Symmetry: An Appreciation of Its Pres- 
ence in Mans Consciousness, architect 
William S. Huff fully explores the 
concept of symmetry as it inheres in 
nature, its contours perceived by 
man, and in turn helps to form 
something approaching a mathemati- 
cal aesthetic of the environment and 
the beautiful. Supporting his discus- 
sions with examples from the diverse 
disciplines of astronomy, chemistry, 
poetr)', and pure mathematics. Huff 
eloquently and elegantly shows us 
that symmetry in nature helps, 
engenders, and parallels all man's 
devices and designs. 

Despite the theoretical and philo- 
sophical character of the subject, the 
Symmetry series is a practical teach- 
ing tool for beginning design stu- 



dents and pleasurable, understand- 
able reading for anyone with an 
interest in design or nature. Perhaps 
because Huffs students themselves 
were intimately in\ olved in the proj- 
ect — perhaps because one of the 
project goals was to "translate" some 
highly academic work in mathe- 
matics and the natural sciences to 
design — abstract concepts such as 
left-right opposition, balance, cen- 
tering, inversion, and the symme- 
tries of expansion, progression, and 
duplication are presented in a precise 
but thought-provoking and even 
exciting manner. 

Symmetry is the product of more than 
ten years of work. Although largely 
funded by the Arts Endow ment, the 
project has attracted local interest in 
Pittsburgh and received additional 
aid from the .\. \\ . Mellon Fxluca- 
tional and Charitable Trust, the 
Pittsburgh Foundation, and the 
J. B. Finley Charitable Trust. Serge 
Chermayeff has called the series "the 
best treatise on the logic of form seen 
in many years" and Michael Brill, "a 
classic in the field of design." 



Grantee and Project Director: 
William S. Huff 
Participants: 

Tomas Gonda, graphic designer; 
Alice Oberdorf, principal 
researcher; Dr. Karl L. Wolf 
(deceased), principal consultant, and 
author (w ith Robert Wolft) of 
Symmetric, Bohlan V'erlag, 
.VFunster/Koln, 1956. 

Symmetry, numbers one through six, 
published by William S. Huff. 

/ 

Examples of symmetrical patterns from 

Huffs work. 

2,3 

Symmetry as evidenced in anatomy and 

architecture. Drawings courtesy of 

William S. Huff. 



103 



Professional Research 



Design for Special Constituencies 





"TM f 


■ """ '.■ 
V ■.■ ■ ■ ,".m 


m 




pW^' 


j^jpfe 


M|jB 




^„_B 


^^^\^ 



Hidden Structure of Children's Play 

Slides, swing sets, and jungle gyms 
all have their place in the urban play- 
scape, although it is likely to be a 
subordinate one according to 
Stephen (irabow and Neil Salkind 
of the University of Kansas. 

Combining the disciplines of archi- 
tecture and educational psychology, 
Grabow and Salkind's 1974 study 
determined the location and the extent 
to which designated play areas (parks, 
open spaces, playgrounds) are used 
by a sample of school children in 
Kansas City, Missouri. The results 
of their study yielded a spatial image 
of where children play in the city 
and strongly suggest that a "hidden" 
structure does exist. That is, children 
do not place as much importance 
on recreational facilities provided by 
conventional agencies as they place 
on elements they spontaneously 
interact with themselves. 

When looking at the city, or parts of 
the city, as a supportive environment 
for child development, elements 
such as fences, alleys, and drug 
stores stand out as vital components 



of a cognitivelv rich en\ ironment 
\\ hich should not be overlooked by 
local agencies responsible for the 
design and maintenance of urban 
neighborhoods. 

Grantees and Project Directors: 
Stephen Cirabow , Ph.D., School of 
Architecture and Urban Design; 
Neil Salkind, Ph.D., Department 
of Pxlucational Psychology' and 
Research 
Participants: 

ManolaGomezand J. B. Meadows, 
research assistants in architecture; 
Patricia Kuntz and Ruth Slesser, 
research assistants in educational 
psychology; Esther McKenzie, edu- 
cational consultant; Richard Estevez, 
elementary school principal 



Cit\' Information Systems 
for Children 

Support from the National Endow- 
ment enabled Boston architect 
.Michael Southworth to explore the 
concept of the city as an educative 
environment for children. 

Southworth sought to understand 
how children learn from and use the 
city, and to determine the extent of 
their city knowledge. He explored 
the problems and potentials of city 
information systems as educators for 
children by developing prototvpical 
designs and policies based upon his 
observations of thirty children. 

The City of Lou ell, .Massachusetts, 
is destined to benefit from 
Southw orth's research as plans pro- 
gress for the Lowell Discovery Net- 
work Urban National Park. 

Grantee and Project Director: 

Michael Southw orth 

Participants: 

Patrick .\logan, community 

coordinator 



Soft Indoor Play Environments 

.\ small Arts Endowment grant 
enabled New ^'ork environmental 
designer Dolores Pacileo to conduct 
a study of stuffing materials and 
sound systems for soft indoor play, 
learning, and therapy en\ ironments 
for handicapped and nonhandi- 
capped children. Dr. Pacileos find- 
ings were part of a major exhibi- 
tion-demonstration held at the Neue 
Galerie in Aachen, Germany, in 
1977. 

.More than five thousand handi- 
capped and nonhandicapped chil- 
dren participated in the exhibition, 
sponsored by the City of .\achcn, 
American and German corporations, 
foundations, education organiza- 
tions, and individuals. I he play 
sculpture w as later permanently 
installed in a school for physically 
handicapped children in Aachen for 
use in play, education, and therapy. 

Grantee and Project Director: 

Dolores .\L Pacileo, Ph.D. 

Participants: 

U.S. Government bureaus; State, 

city, and corporate resources; Cor- 



104 







Access to Play 



porate research department staff; 
Cooperative effort of U.S.A. and 
Germany; Professionals from the 
areas of medicine, therapy, educa- 
tion, psychology; Parents of handi- 
capped children; Students and spe- 
cial needs children; Community 
volunteers; Museum staff 



Youngsters enjoying exhibit of soft play 
sculpture at the Neue Gallerie, Aachen. 
Photograph by Anne Gold. 



Most parents take enormous pleasure 
in seeing the minds and bodies of 
their children stretch and grow and 
experience. But when those children 
are severely mentally or physically 
handicapped, parents often mistak- 
enly believe the "different child" 
should be treated differently. As a 
result, many handicapped young- 
sters are kept apart and protected 
from the difficulties and disappoint- 
ments of "growing up." Isolated from 
their rollicking friends and siblings, 
they are denied the experience of dis- 
covering, of trying and succeeding, 
of failing and trying again. 

Giving back the lost opportunity to 
realize their potential requires, 
among many things, specialized play 
areas and facilities specifically 
designed to meet the children's vary- 
ing needs. To this end, the staff of 
the Pittsburgh Architects Workshop 
set about developing ways of adapt- 
ing regular play areas in an ordinary 
community setting to the special 
requirements of handicapped 
children. 



During the project, the Workshop 
staff carefully observed playground 
activities, and repeatedly questioned 
handicapped children about their 
desired physical activities. They 
were surprised to discover that play 
motions are confined to going up and 
down, back and forth, or around in 
circles. They learned that handi- 
capped children want to do the same 
physical things everyone else does — 
climb, jump, crawl, spin, and 
bounce. "Access to Play," the proj- 
ect's title, came to mean enabling 
handicapped children to do these 
simple things to some extent, under 
their own power. 

By 1978, the Pittsburgh Architects 
Workshop had sufficient experience 
and expertise in the field to develop a 
compendium of reference material 
on the design of specialized play 
areas, to delineate precise criteria 
for redesigning conventional play 
facilities, and to design prototype 
structures for inclusion in any modi- 
fication plans. Their manual, "Access 
to Play," outlines the procedures 
involved in building and modifying 



playgrounds for the handicapped, 
taking into consideration safety, 
accessibility, cost, and maintenance 
in recommending sites, design criteria 
and options, and v\ ays to adapt conven- 
tional equipment for the handicapped. 

Grantee: 

Pittsburgh Architects Workshop 
Project Director: 
Stanley Kabala, Director, Pitts- 
burgh .\rchitect's Workshop 
Project Staff: 
Al Kovacik 
Participants: 

Ronald Wertz, Executi\ e Director, 
Hillman Foundation; James Rocco, 
Pioneer Center; .Marvella Brown, 
Conroy Education Center; Pamela 
Denk, Western Pennsylvania School 
for Blind Children 

1 

Water play, an excellent medium for 
handicapped therapy , can be provided in 
the form of sprays, fountains, cascades, 
troughs, and pools that can be entered 
from gently sloping ramps. Drawing by 
Marcela Gaskill. 



105 



Professional Research 



Design for Special Constituencies 




Headspace 



Access '76 



thinking bed gone mad, 

he began to search, thinking. . . 

''it must be my imagination . . ." 

he found himself believing 
in the things he saw and heard as real 
and slowly the world became 
frighteningly real, 

its blind, insensitive 

blundering about 
a hostile flood, threatening to engulf those 
who could notftnd haven. 

Designing for autistic children was 
the subject of a study made by James 
Kachik, who was asked by the Burt 
Children's Center in San Francisco 
to find ways to use existing space in 
the facility to better meet the needs 
of the children and staff. Kachik 
responded with specially designed 
and constructed furniture for eating, 
sleeping, and body movement ther- 
apy. The furniture works well, as 
indicated by the positive responses 
of the children, and has created a 
more positive image of the Center in 
the minds of the staff as well. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
James R. Kachik 



Participants: 

Burt Children's Center staff 



Play equipment designed for autistic chil- 
dren: (clockwise from top) balance beam, 
ramp and jump box, catapult, walking 
boards, ''scooter" rebound net. Photo- 
graph by James Kachik and Rita IVienk. 



With a grant from the National 
Endov\ment for the Arts and the 
cooperation of organizations and 
individuals planning for the Bicen- 
tennial celebration, the Piaster Seal 
Society of Worcester, Massachusetts, 
initiated "Access '76." The project 
surveyed historical and cultural sites 
and their support services (e.g. , res- 
taurants) in the greater Boston area 
for architectural barriers to the phys- 
ically handicapped and provided rec- 
ommendations for their elimination 
or mcxiification. 

"Access '76, A Blueprint for Action" 
is the outcome of the Society's eight- 
month study. The repf)rt is pres- 
ently in use as a source of informa- 
tion on many historical sites in the 
Greater Boston area and on the 
methods of identifying and eliminat- 
ing architectural barriers to the 
handicapped. 

Grantee: 

The Easter Seal Society, Worcester, 

Massachusetts 

Executive Director: 

Richard .\. LaPierre 



Subcontract: 

United Community Planning Cor- 
poration, Harold W. Demone, Jr., 
Ph.D., Executive \'ice President 
Advisorv' Committee Chairperson: 
William G. Saltonstall, Member of 
the Board of Directors, Massachu- 
setts Easter Seal Society 
\ ice Chairperson: 
M. Daniel Richardson, Jr. , 
Chairman of the Board of 
Directors, United Community 
Planning Corporation 
Project Director: 
C. \ incent Haynes 
Participants: 

Bruce E. Marquis, project monitor; 
Robert J. Lynch, AIA, architectural 
consultant; Lynn R. Friss, research 
assistant; Goldie Libon, coordinator 
of volunteers; Francine L. Hurwit, 
secretar)-; William D. Power, plan- 
ning consultant; Alex Rcxlriguez, 
planning consultant; Elizabeth W. 
Schoppe, public relations consult- 
ant; John F. Chaves, Ph.D., research 
consultant; Ruth L. Diengot, coordi- 
nator of volunteers; Public officials 



106 




Environments for the Mentally 
Retarded 

Many mentally retarded persons 
must be institutionalized because of 
the nature or severity of their retar- 
dation, or because they have no one 
to care for them in noninstitutional 
surroundings. In recent years, many 
private and government groups, 
including the Design Department at 
Carnegie-Mellon University, have 
become concerned about the effects 
of such institutional living on the 
mentally retarded. The Design 
Department's concern led to an 
investigation of the problems of car- 
ing for the retarded and the needs of 
the institutions responsible for them. 
Their work \\ ith a number of coop- 
erating institutions in Western Penn- 
sylvania resulted in the design of 
products that are more responsive to 
the needs of the residents and allow 
greater flexibility in the use of exist- 
ing interior and exterior space of the 
institutions. Carnegie-Mellon 
designs for products such as body 
support systems reflected the need 
for ease of fabrication or adaptability 
by the institution, durability, sanita- 
tion, and safety. The space designs 
focused on modifying the scale of 



available spaces, enriching the multi- 
sensory environment, and encourag- 
ing social interaction. 

Ihe results of the project — designs 
and prototypes in three major areas 
(botly support systems, interior 
environments, and outdoor environ- 
ments) — are contained in the final 
report. Environments for the Mentally 
Retarded. 

Grantee: 

Carnegie-Mellon University, 

Department of Design 

Project Director: 

Joseph M. Ballay, Head, Department 

of Design 

Participants: 

L. Goldman; Administrators 

and staff of Polk, Ebensburg, and 

Western institutions for the mentally 

retarded; Virginia Thornburg, 

Pennsylvania Association for 

Retarded Citizens 

1 

''Hot Dog" a body support mobility 

device. Photograph by]. M. Ballay. 



.\ Communication System for 
the Blind 

The difficulties encountered in 
information-intensive occupations 
where the blind and sighted work 
together prompted Alexander Bally 
of Bally Design, Inc., Carnegie, 
Pennsylvania, to explore ways of 
improving communication. 

Bally has developed a concept he 
calls video-tactile conversion, or 
\ IIACON, w hich enables the 
blind and the sighted to exchange 
written, nonspoken information 
while working together in an office 
environment. The convenient and 
easily learned method of communi- 
cation relies on a modified version of 
a conventional electronic typing sta- 
tion with keyboard and video display 
that allows text to appear simultane- 
ously as a visual image on a television 
screen and as a tactile pattern on a 
touch display using a modified ver- 
sion of braille. 

Grantee and Project Director: 

Alexander Bally 

Participants: 

Tim Cunningham, Reiner Teufel 



Building Products for the Aged 

With a small grant from the National 
Endowment for the Arts, Joseph 
Koncelik of Ohio State University 
set about to collect, classify, and 
evaluate information about products 
that architects, interior designers, 
and industrial designers specify for 
buildings designed for the elderly. 

More than t\\ o hundred entries \\ ere 
made in the final report, w hich w as 
distributed at the end of the project 
to participants in the data collection. 
A conference was given in May 1979 
on the findings of the report; more 
than thirty designers, manufac- 
turers, and facility administrators 
attended. 

The research and documentation is 
leading to the publication of a book 
to be entitled Aging and the Product 
Environment. 

Grantee and Project Director: 

Joseph A. Koncelik 

Participants: 

Renee Kropat, research associate and 

co-author 



107 



Professional Research 



Applied Studies 




Theme Parks 



In the current architecture of play, 
thcnic parks rule supreme, incorpo- 
rating the gaiety of the circus, the 
visual mastery of film, and the inno- 
vation of science fiction to bring 
wonder and excitement to one hun- 
dred million Americans each year. 
The theme park is the twentieth 
century's version of the renaissance 
festival, a comingtogether of many 
different art forms to prov ide amuse- 
ment for a society with increased lei- 
sure time and limited outlets for ful- 
fillment. 



Modern Antecedents 

In the introduction to his study of 
theme parks, "Merchandising Archi- 
tecture: Architectural Implications 
of rhemeparks," Louis Wasserman 
explains the development of this con- 
temporary phenomenon. 

The theme park came of age in the 19th 
century, marked by the Columbian expo- 
sition in Chicago in 1898, [which] with 
its stylistic regressions that set modern 
architecture back 50 years. . .also brought 
together into a visual whole a collection of 



international exhibits, attractions, rides 
and midway to form the basis for the 
''theme'' amusement park. 

Then in the 1950s Walt Disney, dis- 
gusted \\ ith the "nervous disorienta- 
tion of dirt, disorder, indigestion and 
freaks" of the amusement park, 
seized upon the concept of organiz- 
ing a park around a central theme or 
themes having a planned, visually 
ordered environment. 



Merchandising Architecture 

loday theme parks surpass even 
popular spectator sports in providing 
amusement and making money. 
Wasserman takes a humanis- 
tic look at the world of amusement 
parks from an architect's point of 
view. He sees the theme park as the 
grand colosseum of the twentieth 
century, pro\ iding a safe urban-scale 
meeting place for Americans fearful 
of the dirt and chaos of the real city. 
For this populace, the theme park 
has social and psychological poten- 
tial as well as urban-design possibili- 
ties as a model of a well-ordered, 



secure, and pleasurable environ- 
ment. 

In Wasserman's view, theme parks 
merchandise architecture by con- 
taining their fantasy world within a 
well-planned \ isual envelope, or 
theme, that employs film-scripting 
techniques to orchestrate visual 
imagery and order. 

The theme parks study begins w ith a 
summar\' of the evolution of archi- 
tecture that emphasizes the develop- 
ment of perspective and the role of 
film in assisting in visualizing urban- 
scale problems. Ivvo chapters are 
devoted to the social antecedents of 
theme parks. Wasserman and his 
team then rate more than tw entv 
American theme parks and park-like 
cities for their strengths and weak- 
nesses, and describe the various 
design elements and techniques that 
make them successful. The study 
concludes w ith a commentary on 
mcxlem architecture's disappointing 
contributions to theme parks and 
other popular architecture and spec- 
ulates on the next generation of 



theme parks as leisure interests shift, 
consumer groups change, and the 
market becomes more competitive. 
In the final chapter, Wasserman 
delves beneath the layered veneers of 
this happy architecture to reveal the 
machinations of theme-park design 
from economic, cinematic, and 
architectural viewpoints. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Louis \\ asserman 
Participants: 

Caren Connolly, roller coaster con- 
sultant and illustrations; Barbara 
Wasserman, graphics; Louis Wasser- 
man, illustrations and photographs 

/,2 

Scenes from Disneyland, the best known 

of the modem theme parks. 



108 




Streetscape Equipment Sourcebook 



Film in User Analysis 



Street furniture — lighting, paving, 
signage, traffic control — is the sub- 
ject of Streetscape Equipment 
Sourcebook (SES), a publication of the 
Center for Design Planning of Coco- 
nut Grove, Florida, funded by the 
National Endowment for the Arts. 

SES addresses the need to give more 
critical attention to street furniture 
in order to help improve the visual 
character and function of public 
spaces. It provides a compendium of 
products selected for superior visual 
design and performance by a distin- 
guished jurv'. 

A reference tool for specifiers, 
designers, and municipal agencies, 
SES has benefitted sales for those 
manufacturers whose products are 
listed. These results have spurred in- 
dustr)- to improve their designs and 
to request inclusion in the second 
edition of SES, printed by the 
Urban Land Institute, 
Washington, D.C. 

Grantee: 

Center for Design Planning 



Project Director: 

Harold Lewis Malt, AICP, ASLA, 

Executive Director, Center for 

Design Planning 

Participants: 

Barbara Xaos; (Jury) Myron Calkins, 

PE; John P. Eberhard, AIA; 

William M. Goldsmith, FIDSA; 

Alexander Lurkis, PE; William G. 

Swain, FASLA 

Streetscape Equipment Sourcebook 
is available on request from the 
Urban Land Institute, 
Washington, D.C. 

/ 

Examples of street furnishings found in 

the two-volume catalogue entitled 

Streetscape P'quipment Sourcebook. 

Photograph courtesy of Center for Design 

Planning. 



Film in User Analysis is a handbook 
prepared by Project for Public 
Spaces, Inc. (PPS) of New York to 
help train professionals in the fields 
of design, planning, and manage- 
ment in understanding and evaluat- 
ing how people actually use public 
space. The handbook demonstrates 
how super-8 motion picture film can 
be used to gather, interpret, and 
communicate concrete information 
about people's activity patterns. 

In 1978, PPS analyzed patterns of 
visitors to New York's Gatew ay 
National Recreation Area for the 
National Park Service. A combina- 
tion of on-site obsen ation and film- 
ing techniques enabled PPS to iden- 
tify visitor needs in the most heavily 
used area of the park and develop 
guidelines for improvements. The 
follow ing year, PPS adapted the 
techniques to nonurban parks and 
tested them during exploratorv 
studies in the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains and Grand Teton national 
parks. 



W' ith these projects as case studies, 
PPS developed curriculum materials 
for an education-training program 
w hich it tested in a tlve-day w orkshop 
for National Park Service planning 
and management staff in \\ ashing- 
ton, D.C. 

Grantee: 

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 

President: 

Fred I. Kent III 

Project Director: 

Kathleen .\. Madden 

Participants: 

Linda Anne Leeds, Sue Rieder, 

Marianne Cramer, Dennis Piper 

(National Park Sen ice) and Dan 

Ochiva, technical advisors 

Film in User Analysis is available from 
Project for Public Spaces, Inc., New- 
York. 



109 



Professional Research 



Applied Studies 





The Right to Walk 

Everyone who participates in the life 
of the city becomes a pedestrian at 
some point, whether to make the 
short trip from car or transit, or to 
take a longer stroll. And every 
pedestrian has encountered closed- 
off sidewalks, hazardous intersec- 
tions, and bus stops barricaded by 
road construction. 

Lois Greulich Jackson's Endowment- 
funded report, "The Right to Walk," 
presents a comprehensive view of 
planning for pedestrians and makes 
recommendations for improvements 
in a manner intendetl to increase 
public awareness and professional 
concern. 

Jackson stresses the importance 
of attractive and functional networks 
for w alking, illustrating the potential 
for improvement with examples 
from Washington, D.C. Her 
research influenced officials to aban- 
don a $500,000 busvvay project 
because it was detrimental to pedes- 
trians and streetscape, as well as to 
the new METRO system. 



Grantee and Project Director: 

Lois Greulich Jackson, AICP 

Participant: 

Donald E. Jackson, .\L\ 



Union Station typifies a common 
approach to pedestrian needs: those on foot 
stand exposed to the elements, while cars 
pull up to the 600 foot long arcade. Pho- 
tograph by Lois Jackson. 



Experimental Freew ay .Message 
Boards 

In 1975, Communications Consul- 
tant Jack Roberts obtained an Arts 
Endow ment grant to studv the use 
and misuse of illuminated freeway 
signs on the Santa Monica Freeway. 
His work is the only objective 
appraisal of this CalTrans $1.4 mil- 
lion changeable-message signboard 
experiment. The signs flash mes- 
sages about current road conditions, 
such as "Warning: Road Slipper)" or 
"Slow : Heavy Traffic Ahead." 

Roberts's study revealed that the 
message boards provided useful traf- 
fic information less than tw o percent 
of the time, and that boards display- 
ing no information ninety -eight per- 
cent of the time lacked credibility 
when messages were transmitted. The 
study also show ed the need to verify 
messages using on-site television 
monitors and to reconsider the de- 
sign of the message board. CalTrans 
has implemented one of Roberts's 
recommendations, that messages 
pertaining to energv' conservation, 
safety, or civic interest be used to 
insure continual communication 
w ith motorists. 



Grantee and Project Director: 
Jack Roberts, Director, Public Ser- 
vice Advertising, Ogiivy & .Mather, 
Los Angeles 
Participants: 

John Stern, Stephanie Roberts, 
.Michael Bogdanoff, Peter Rich, 
Consuelo Rovirosa 
Photography: 
Jack Roberts 



With stop-and-go driving defined as 
''normal" every morning, and reajfirmed 
every evening, the virtue of abnormality 
became increasingly apparent. 



10 




IHARVEY sr perlioffjjjirector: 

TLO C K L . CO PER 1$; El S N E R H . 










"^. \ 



The Contribution of the Arts 
to the Economic Life of a City 

Our society has dual objectives for the 
arts: the achievement of artistic excellence 
and contribution to the community. 
Increasingly, the latter encompasses the 
actual and potential contribution of 
the arts to the strengthening of local 
economies. 

This statement expresses the philos- 
ophy underlying a study undertaken 
hv the Urban Innovations Group to 
consider ways in which the eco- 
nomic contribution made by the arts 
might be increased to alleviate the 
economic stress on our larger central 
cities, which now house the greatest 
concentration of urban poor and 
minority families. 

On the premise that central cities 
will become increasingly dependent 
on service activities for jobs and 
income, the study considers the 
potential for the arts to contribute 
employment opportunities as well as 
functions that increase the attractive- 
ness of the city to all socioeconomic 
groups. 



The Urban Innovations Group 
approached the subject from three 
points. P irst, they developed a 
framework to catalogue and analyze 
arts activities and institutions, and to 
evolve strategies for enhancing the 
contribution of the arts to local econ- 
omies. Second, they surveyed arts 
activities in Los Angeles as a founda- 
tion for discussing strategies and tac- 
tics for change. Third, they assessed 
various \\ ays to impro\ e the financ- 
ing mechanisms and organizational 
structures of arts groups as means for 
strengthening their economic contri- 
butions. Ihe result is a book entitled 
Arts in the Economic Life of the City. 

Grantee: 

Urban Innovations Group 

Executive Director: 

Simon Eisner 

Project Director: 

LeeCi. Cooper 

Participants: 

Harvey S. Perloff, Paul Bullock, 

Hyman R. Faine, Roger Gomez, 

Nan Halperin, Barry Katz, Kathryn 

Lim, Katerine \ an Ness, Helen L. 

Horowitz, Jean King 



Arts in the Economic Life of the City, 
published by the .\merican Council 
for the Arts, 1979. 

1 

Illustration from ''Arts in the Economic 
Life of the City." Drawing by Vince 
Healey. 



ill 



Professional Research 



Applied Studies 




System Ecologic 



Shelter in the Harsh Land 



y\s the demand for economical and 
well-designed housing in limited 
space increases, the weight of com- 
plex design, construction, and man- 
agement decisions becomes increas- 
ingly burdensome to architects and 
developers. Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, architects Laurence and Sher- 
rie Cutler's Handbook of Housing Sys- 
tems for Designers and Developers 
explains building systems as a 
process and describes how to evalu- 
ate specific building systems. 

The book is the result of studies 
undertaken to assess various building 
prototypes and develop a transitional 
building scheme to meet current 
needs. Ihc Cutlers' low-capital solu- 
tion, "System Ecologic," described in 
their book, can be adapted to varied 
sites and solutions using any of three 
basic structural components: wood, 
steel, and concrete. 

Grantees and Project Directors: 
Laurence S. Cutler and Sherrie 
S. Cuder 



Handbook of Housing Systems for 
Designers and Developers, published by 
Van Xostrand Reinhold, 1974. 



Paul G. McHenry , Jr. , a New Mex- 
ico architect, is fascinated by the 
adaptability of the human race. 
In "Shelter in the Harsh Land," 
McHenrv focuses on American 
architectural traditions among non- 
technological native American cul- 
tures, both before and after the 
Spanish Conquest. McHenny^'s 
thesis is that a detailed understand- 
ing of the evolution of architectural 
traditions will give important 
insights into the culture and the sur- 
vival strategies of those people who 
flourished in a barren environ- 
ment—the Southwestern United 
States. 

McHenry's examination of these 
nontcchnological cultures reveals 
much about how people \\ ith limited 
resources are forced to think crea- 
tively—not an untimely concept. A 
spin-off of this line of inquirv is 
another Kndou mcnt-funded project 
by McHenr)', "A .Manual for Simple 
Housing." 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Paul(^...VlcHenry,Jr. 



1 

Shaped tufa ''bricks" having the appear- 
ance of adobe bricks are used to supple- 
ment and enlarge cave shelters. Puye 
Cliffs, New Mexico. Photograph by Paul 
G. McHenry. 



112 




^i^nit4 



fCli 





Plants as Environmental Indicators 

Because plants occupy well-defined 
ecological niches and react to envi- 
ronmental change, careful observa- 
tion of plants and communities can 
yield important clues of use to the 
land planner. New Hampshire land- 
scape architect James S. Kennedy's 
Endowment-supported project, 
"Plants as Indicators of Environmen- 
tal Conditions," outlines exactly how 
ecological data may be used to make 
intelligent decisions about land use. 
Kennedy tabulates indicator plants, 
stresses the collection and interpreta- 
tion of primary data, and discusses 
strategies for interpreting it. 

This is a comprehensive study that 
will prove especially useful to per- 
sons involved in deciding how to 
plan land uses by interpreting vege- 
tation ecology. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
James S. Kennedy 
Photography: 
James S. Kennedy 



Assessing Design Review 
Commissions 

How effective are design review 
commissions? A. Robert Thoresen 
used a Design Project Fellowship to 
examine the effect that historic dis- 
trict/design review commissions 
have on the quality of the built envi- 
ronment in eight cities across the 
country. He interviewed commis- 
sion members, observed commission 
decision-making, reviewed files, and 
photographed the districts 
and buildings affected by design 
decisions. 

Directed at providing an under- 
standing of how these commissions 
reached their decisions, the study 
revealed four important findings. 
First, most commissions did not 
clearly understand their policy 
objectives. Second, they did not 
understand the limitations of the 
review process. Third, the authori- 
ties appointing commission members 
showed their ambivalence toward 
the commission's role by appointing 
members who formed competing 
factions with the commission. 
Fourth, the process of decision- 
making tended to narrow rather than 



expand the range of design alterna- 
tives members found desirable. This 
project led to a new Endowment- 
funded demonstration training pro- 
gram directed at historic district 
commission members in New 
England. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
A. Robert Thoresen 

1 

Decisions by design review commissions 
exhibit a wide range of type, acceptabil- 
ity, and sophistication. A contemporary 
infill housing unit in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, was one of the Landmark Commis- 
sion controversial decisions. Photograph 
by Robert Thoresen. 
2 

Prosaic '''wild west" signing was also 
approved by Auburn, California's Com- 
mission. Photograph by Bruce M. 
Kriwisky. 



Permits and Preservation 

A small grant from the National 
Endowment for the .\rts enabled 
Felix M. Warburg of San Francisco 
to undertake a study of existing per- 
mit processes as they apply to urban 
form, with emphasis on the preser- 
vation and rehabilitation of residen- 
tial structures in San Francisco. 

The result of the study \\ as "Permits 
and Preservation," a document 
which analyzes the functions of all 
San Francisco public agencies, 
including building and planning 
departments and the landmarks 
and redevelopment agencies, 
whose actions have impact on the 
applicants' abilitv to restore residen- 
tial structures. The study also identi- 
fies private institutional constraints, 
such as the policies of lending insti- 
tutions, and recommends adminis- 
trative and legislative changes. 

Grantee and Project Director: 

Felix .\I. Warburg, AIA, AICP 

Participants: 

City officials; .\Iarjorie Spiegelman, 

graphic designer 



13 



Heritage, 
Consenation, 
.\nd Planning 



Heritage, Conservation, and Planning Overv ievv 



Rai Okamoto 




The scramble for a share of the 
dwindling supply of public assis- 
tance funds that occurred following 
the passage of Proposition 13, which 
cut property taxes in California, 
caused people and program priorities 
to be reshuffled in go\ ernment agen- 
cies across the state. As a conse- 
quence, many planning offices found 
they were only able to fulfill the 
minimum requirements of the plan- 
ning codes. Technical assistance in 
civic design, historic preservation, 
plazas and parks, and other urban 
amenities were in many cases put 
aside together with the time needed 
to anticipate development and work 
with a community and developer to 
insure high-quality, human-scale 
design and planning. People who 
were trying to make cities more liv- 
able grew despondent. 

The experience of reviewing the 
accomplishments of groups and indi- 
viduals that have received grants 
from the Arts Endowment gives 
courage to those disheartened by the 
recent California initiative. For one 
of the most noteworthy aspects of 



these projects is the enormous fund 
of citizen concern, dedication, and 
hard work that has been brought to 
bear on problems and opportunities 
for the built environment. This 
commitment, when combined w ith 
skilled professional leadership, has 
produced, if not miracles, certainly 
some fine success stories. 

As the panelists reviewed the proj- 
ects undertaken in historic preser\a- 
tion, open space, and land use plan- 
ning, we evolved a flexible set of 
criteria to guide our decisions. The 
criteria are exemplified by four proj- 
ects which we all agreed were partic- 
ularly outstanding: Boston's Urban 
Wilds; Broken Serenity in (iunnison 
County, Colorado; the Hudson- 
Mohawk Industrial Gateway; and 
Splendid Survivors in San PVan- 
cisco. These stood out from the rest 
as one-of-a-kind pieces of work, 
unique in concept, approach, or 
implementation (Boston's Urban 
Wilds) or exceptionally thorough in 
execution (Splendid Survivors). All 
had significant, real-life impacts on 
their communities; the results of 



each \\ ere clearly and attractively 
presented; and all are replicable. 

Four other projects we found to be 
outstanding were of modest scale: 
Housemoving, Nebraska Capitol 
and Environs, a Lakefront Park in 
Williams Bay, and a Tum-of-the- 
Centurv' .Main Street in Ogden, 
Utah. In all of these, the quality of 
the work and its presentation were 
excellent. All show the breadth of 
Endowment support for small towns 
and small scale as w ell as large. Still 
other projects looked as though they 
might produce spectacular results 
— such as Paterson, New Jersey; 
Savannah, Georgia; and the restora- 
tion of the Bronx River in New York 
City — but \\ ere not yet complete 
enough for us to make that judgment 
\\ ith certainty. We hope they will be 
resubmitted once completd. 

The projects themselves fell into sev- 
eral clear categories that illustrate 
u hat informed citizens and profes- 
sionals are most concerned about. 
Downtowns, neighborhoods, and 
city parks are some of the places 



where activists are focusing their 
attention in an attempt to make town 
living more human, appealing, and 
attractive. The projects in Galves- 
ton, Texas; Ogden, Utah; Lincoln, 
Nebraska; San Francisco; and in vil- 
lages in central New York addressed 
texture, detail, quality, and the aes- 
thetic integration of form and scale. 
These efforts were concentrated on 
individual buildings or, atmost, a 
few blocks of buildings. In Ogden, 
Utah, for example, the subject was 
a run-down street only a feu blocks 
long. Small changes such as facade 
restoration and tree planting \\ ere 
recommended that could make a big 
difference in citizens' \\ illingness 
to patronize the area again. In San 
Francisco, practically ever\- building 
in the center city u as assessed with 
uncommon thoroughness. 

.\nother group of projects fell to the 
opposite end of the scale: regional 
land use planning in rural areas. 
Degradation of the rural landscape is 
a growing concern as urban sprawl 
continues to encroach on rich farm- 
land and blight pastoral settings. 



116 



The problem is becoming wide- 
spread. The Virginia Piedmont, the 
Colorado Rockies, the Maine woods, 
and the scenic California coastline 
are all feeling the pressure; and pro- 
fessionals and citizens alike have 
begun to search for ways to manage 
and mitigate the negative impacts of 
development. These places are often 
valued because of their outstanding 
scenic beauty (the California coast), 
or because they impart a special feel- 
ing such as "elbow room" (Gunnison 
County, Colorado). The problem is 
how to define, much less manage 
and preserve, these elusive qualities. 
Both the Piedmont Environmental 
Council and the Rural Communities 
Institute in conjunction with the 
Harvard Graduate School of Design 
have addressed the aesthetics of the 
rural landscape and produced excel- 
lent models which rationally analyze 
the components of a good view and 
offer suggestions for preserving it. 
William Liskamm's visual design 
component of the California Coastal 
Development regulations shows how 
much can be added to environmental 
protection measures by close atten- 



tion to the visual impact of a growing 
body of law. 

One message that is clear in all these 
projects, whatever the scale, is that 
people care about their environment 
and are beginning to understand the 
contribution that attention to detail 
can make. Years of patient, persis- 
tent effort are necessary to bring 
about the slow, incremental changes 
which eventually produce a signifi- 
cant difference in the texture of 
downtowns and neighborhoods. 
And although the need for wise man- 
agement of rural resources is not yet 
as keenly developed in the public 
consciousness as is neighborhood 
conservation, the Endowment's sup- 
port of rural land conservation 
should continue to increase public 
awareness that no corner of America 
is immune to concern for environ- 
mental quality. 

Panelists (from left to right in photo- 
graph) Sherrie Cutler, Rai Okamoto, 
Paul Friedberg. 



ii: 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Conservation and Restoration 




Splendid Survivors 



"This splendid appreciation of his- 
toric San Francisco architecture is a 
landmark in urban literature," writes 
Allan Temko, architecture editor of 
the San Francisco Chronicle, of Splendid 
Survivors, which shows the results of 
a two-year project that photo- 
graphed, catalogued, and evaluated 
almost eight hundred buildings in 
San Francisco. More than a coffee- 
table volume depicting San Fran- 
cisco's rich architectural heritage, the 
book is a critical planning and devel- 
opment tool and a wonderful guide 
for walking tours of the city. 

Ihe idea of cataloguing these "splen- 
did survivors" came about because 
of widespread alarm over new con- 
struction in the dow ntow n area. Bv 
the mid-1970s many landmark qual- 
ity buildings were gone and San 
P ranciscans feared the irrecoverable 
loss of the traditional character of the 
entire downtown area as well. 

The Foundation for San Francisco's 
Architectural Heritage decided to 
seek grant support for a comprehen- 
sive inventory and evaluation of the 



downtown area, providing objective 
information that could serve as the 
basis for assessing future develop- 
ment and urban-renewal decisions, 
and for raising public aw areness and 
support for preservation. With sup- 
port from the Arts P.ndow ment, the 
Foundation undertook a comprehen- 
sive survey of 790 land parcels within 
the central business district— photo- 
graphing, describing, and evaluating 
each. The criteria used to evaluate 
the buildings ranged from the qual- 
ity of design to association v\ ith 
important persons or events to 
present condition and structural 
integrity. The completed evaluations 
comprise a catalogue of information 
on which public and private develop- 
ment decisions can be made. 

Splendid Survivors, the splendid 
book that documents the survey, has 
received wide critical acclaim for dis- 
passionate thoroughness and useful- 
ness to a number of audiences, as 
well as for its lovely photographs. It 
gives both an historical overview of 
San Francisco's urban development 
and the results of the inventory in a 



catalogue fomiat. Altogether the 
book is an excellent reference source, 
providing a context in w hich persons 
involved in San Francisco's develop- 
ment can judge buildings and partic- 
ipate intelligently in decisions about 
urban growth and change. 

Grantee: 

The Foundation for San Francisco's 

.Architectural Heritage 

Executive Director: 

Robert Bemer 

Project Director and .\uthor: 

Michael Corbett, Charles Hall Page 

and Associates, Inc., Architects and 

Urban Planners 

Splendid Survivors: San Francisco's 
Dozvntozvn Architectural Heritage, 
published by California Living 
Books and the Foundation for San 
Francisco's Architectural Heritage, 
1979. 

/ 

Chamberlain Building. Arthur Brown, 
Jr. , 1925 . One of three 20-foot wide sky- 
scrapers in downtown San Francisco, 
this building refects the land values that 



made such structures economically feasi- 
ble. The fire escape is treated as an aes- 
thetic element. Photograph by Charles 
Hall Page & Associates, Inc. 
2 

Hallidie Building. Willis Polk, 1911. 
This building was the world's first glass 
curtain -walled structure. It is a superb 
work of urban architecture which comple- 
ments its surroundings. Photograph by 
Foundation for San Francisco s Architec- 
tural Heritage. 
3 

The Bank of California. Bliss and 
Faville, 1907. The finest banking temple 
in a city of banking temples. The ''Archi- 
tectural Record'' wrote of the design in 
1906 that it 'promises to be one of the 
most imposing edifices in the United 
States devoted to banking purposes." In 
1967 a sensitive modem tower by Anshen 
and Allen was joined to the Bank's west 
side, opening onto the roof of the old bank 
building. Photograph by Charles Hall 
Page &" Associates, Inc. 



118 




s ? 



lllfzllll ■ 

$11 ■■■■■■■■■it #^*v 



A Search for Identity 



The post— World War II story of 
neglect and population decline expe- 
rienced in St. Paul, Minnesota's, 
Historic Hill District is a familiar 
one to many American inner cities. 
But the residents of the old Hill Dis- 
trict found that traditional urban 
renewal provided no miracle solu- 
tions and that the residents' own lack 
of confidence in their community 
was contributing to its deterioration. 

In a study. Building the Future from 
Our Past, produced by Old Town 
Restorations, Inc. (OTR), a non- 
profit corporation dedicated to the 
preser\ ation of St. Paul's architec- 
tural heritage, the concept of 
stabilizing neighborhoods through 
resident action and control was 
determined to be the major factor in 
establishing a healthy neighborhood. 
Looking at the types of individuals 
who became pan of the "back-to-the- 
city" movement, the report states 
that people "come looking for a 
unique combination of small-town 
community together with the cul- 
tural and business amenities of 
inner-city life, the vitality of many 



ages, nationalities, and economic 
levels all trying to make their lives 
and their neighborhoods something 
greater than the sum of their parts." 

The old Hill District contains more 
than two hundred buildings of his- 
toric and architectural significance. 
By focusing activity on home o\\ ner- 
ship, and planning that would com- 
plement the neighborhood character, 
OTR was able to effect a subtle 
change in residents' attitudes and a 
profound change in community 
health. 

The project to date has generated 
more than $30 million in restoration 
work and has witnessed the estab- 
lishment of two National Register 
districts, two commercial streets 
boasting new businesses, and — 
through a growing in\estment of pri- 
vate money — a diminishing reliance 
on government-sponsored programs. 

Grantee: 

Old Tow n Restorations, Inc. 
Project Director: 
Christopher Owens 



Participants: 

Center for Urban and Regional 
Affairs, University of Minnesota; 
City of St. Paul Department of Plan- 
ning; Housing and Redevelopment 
Authorit\' of St. Paul; Richard 
Frank; School of .\rchitecture. Uni- 
versity of Minnesota; .Vlacalaster 
College; Minnesota Historical Soci- 
et\'; Ramsey Hill .Association; Sum- 
mit Hill Association; Portland-Selby 
Neighborhood Organization 

A 2 

Restored homes in the Historic District of 
St. Paul, Minnesota. Photographs cour- 
tesy of Old Town Restorations, Inc. 



19 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Conservation and Restoration 



T-^-T 



II II II II n II 11 n n^tt'^.Mii 
it n !i II n< II u ii u u u N 



> I I ^ ^^, 



nl^!:l^yai!:!lrbl!•^l'■p^ 




The Strand in Galveston, Texas 



The adaptation of some of America's 
finest nineteenth century commer- 
cial structures to new use, dynamic 
arts and preservationist support, and 
a location near an historic and still 
functioning waterfront combined to 
put Galveston back on the map as a 
lively cultural center. A series of 
Kndowment grants to two nonprofit 
organizations in Galveston has 
assisted in the establishment of a 
revolving fund, helped fund the cre- 
ative "Action Plan for The Strand," 
and initiated an annual Festival on 
The Strand, Galveston's historic 
commercial area. Today Ihe Strand 
is once again alive and well, as a 
thriving commercial area, a regional 
tourist attraction, a lively residential 
neighborhood, and a National His- 
toric Landmark District. 



A Rebirth 

Galveston was the commercial and 
cultural hub of much of the South- 
west and one of the leading ports of 
the nation in the mid-to-late nine- 
teenth century. The Strand, its main 
street, was known as the Wall Street 



of the Southwest. But The Strand's 
fortunes reversed when a hurricane 
hit Galveston full force in 1900, kill- 
ing six thousand people, .\lthough 
the hurricane left the sturdy build- 
ings intact, Galveston settled into 
decades of stagnation and The 
Strand became an area of vacant, 
deteriorated buildings dotted with a 
few remaining wholesalers. 

The Strand comprises approxi- 
mately fifteen city blocks w ith fifty- 
one nineteenth century and two 
major Art Dcco structures, all 
tucked betv\ een dow ntow n Gah es- 
ton and an active waterfront oper- 
ated by the Galveston Wharves. 
Early impetus for its revitalization 
came from the Junior League of 
Galveston, the Galveston County 
Cultural Arts Council, and the 
Galveston Historical Foundation. 
Founded in 1970 to foster the visual 
and performing arts in the city, the 
Arts Council quickly perceived that 
in order to thrive, the arts needed an 
appropriate urban setting. The Arts 
Council reorganized to include not 
only arts persons, but also represen- 



tatives of business, government, 
education, religion, minorities, and 
preser\'ation and civic groups, all 
sharing a common interest — the 
revival of The Strand. 

The Junior League initiated the 
effort by restoring tu o key Strand 
buildings. The .\rts Council then 
located its own headquarters in one 
of those buildings on The Strand 
and, with a grant from the National 
Endowment for the .\rts, brought in 
leading preservationists from across 
the countrv' to give their views on 
The Strand's potential. One result of 
this was approval of major Moody 
Foundation and Kempner Fund 
grants to establish a revolving fund, 
administered by the Galveston His- 
torical Foundation, for the purchase 
and resale of Strand Buildings, and 
through this the revitalization of The 
Strand as an active, multi-use area 
took hold. 

In April 1973, the Galveston Histori- 
cal Foundation undertook the many 
tasks necessar)' to operate the revolv- 
ing fund effectively: organizing man- 



agement, strengthening community 
support, completing real estate pur- 
chases, working out deed restrictions 
and rehabilitation requirements, 
marketing the buildings, and arrang- 
ing financing from local lenders for 
rehabilitation. The Foundation also 
initiated the magical Dickens's Eve- 
ning on 1 he Strand as a major public 
event, extensive tour programs, and 
selected capital improvements. In 
1974 the Foundation, with assistance 
from the National Endowment for 
the Arts, introduced the idea of for- 
mulating a master plan for the entire 
Strand district. Ihe firm of \ enturi 
and Rauch was selected to develop a 
plan and began to work with com- 
munitv' groups, local residents, and 
business people to evolve an incre- 
mental strategv' for The Strand's 
rebirth as an active commercial, resi- 
dential, and cultural community that 
would also be attractive to tourists. 
The firm pnxluced prototypical 
designs for an integrated sign sys- 
tem, a traffic improvement plan, 
suggestions for facade restoration, 
preliminarv' designs for pedestrian 
promenades, and a small park. They 



120 




also provided extensive recommen- 
dations for links between The 
Strand and neighboring points of 
important activity such as the down- 
tow n, the 1894 Grand Opera House, 
the beachfront, and the waterfront. 



The Strand Today 

Through these efforts, the Galveston 
Historical Foundation has attracted 
more than $6 million in for-profit 
funds, which have been invested in 
the rehabilitation of Strand build- 
ings. Another $5 million in renova- 
tion is planned. Twenty -one build- 
ings have been rehabilitated for 
active use, the Historical Foundation 
holds preservation deed restrictions 
on nineteen Strand buildings, water- 
front access for the public has been 
assured, and the 1877 square-rigged 
sailing vessel ELISS.\ is now being 
restored for berthing adjacent to The 
Strand. Galvestonians and visitors 
now find that The Strand has 
become an exciting area of shops, 
restaurants, apartments, and offices, 
while the district's original inhabi- 
tants, the wholesalers, are working in 



harmony with the revitalization pro- 
gram. Satisfied with progress on 
The Strand, itself, the Historical 
Foundation is now concentrating its 
revolving fund activities on the dete- 
riorated nineteenth century build- 
ings on Mechanic Street, parallel to 
The Strand and one block farther 
inland from the original waterfront. 

While all this restoration was pro- 
gressing, the Galveston County Cul- 
tural Arts Council continued to take 
critical steps to make The Strand 
and downtown a center of artistic 
activity as well as a commercial suc- 
cess. More recently, the .Moody 
Foundation has pledged $1 million 
to restore the 1894 Grand Opera 
House, and the City of Galveston 
has applied for an $800,000 Urban 
Development .\ction Grant from 
the Department of Housing and 
Urban Development to help restore 
the building. 

Grantees: 

Galveston Historical Foundation, 
Inc.; Galveston County Cultural 
.\rts Council, Inc. 



Executive Directors: 
Peter Brink, Emily Whiteside 
Participants: 

V'enturi and Ranch, Philadelphia; 
Denise Scott Brow n, Partner-in- 
Charge; Stanley Taraila, project 
architect; Stanford Hughes, assis- 
tant; Chris Brown .\ssociates. Econ- 
omists; Taft .Architects, Houston; 
Ford, Pow ell & Carson, San Anto- 
nio; Texas Historical Commission, 
Austin; Ronald Fleming, E.xecutive 
Director, Vision, Inc.; Ben Mason, 
economic consultant; .\rthur 
Ziegler, Jr., E.xecutive Director; 
Pittsburgh History and Landmarks 
Foundation; Lee .\dler. Chairman of 
the Board, National Trust for His- 
toric Preservation; David Weiss, 
U.S. Instituteof Theater Techni- 
cians; Walter P. Moore, consultant; 
Keoni Robinson, Production Direc- 
tor, GCC.\C; Drew Boggs and 
James R. Foutch, revolving fund 
vice-presidents, GHF; Mrs. Elbert 
B. Whorton, Jr., events and research 
vice-president, GHF; Private 
owners of buildings on The Strand 



Typical Strand elevation . Drawing cour- 
tesy of Venturi and Ranch. 
2 

The Strand at 22nd Street; at right is 
Richard Haas's trompe Foeil. Photograph 
courtesy of the Galveston Historical 
Foundation, Inc. 



121 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



(Conservation ami Restoration 




'^v...<fe 







A Turn-of-the-Century Main Street 



A commitment to excellence and 
enthusiasm for downtown revitaliza- 
tion have produced a series of archi- 
tectural drawings illustrating the 
potential of an important commercial 
avenue in Ogden, Utah, and recom- 
mending ways to revitalize it. 

The commercial street, 25th Street, 
is acknow ledged to have the most 
complete contiguous selection of 
turn-of-the-centur)' commercial 
architecture in the state of Utah. 
Once a residential as well as a com- 
mercial street, in its heyday 25th 
Street w as the huh of all social activ- 
ity in Ogden— Utah's second largest 
city— but, like other main streets in 
America, it declined. 

Now the street is receiving civic 
attention as the main link between 
the central business district and a 
newly developing multi-purpose 
center at Union Railroad Station. 
Ihe architecture is a fine representa- 
tion of its period; most of the build- 
ings have remained relatively unal- 
tereil over the years. I*"ven though 
the street has grow n seedy, the city 



believes it can become a lively social 
district once again. 

.Acting on this belief, the Ogden 
Neighborhood Development 
.\gencv commissioned a study to 
serve as a v\ orking document for the 
city, property ow ners, and citizens 
of Ogden in reversing the deleterious 
condition of the street. The study 
recommended such options for pub- 
lic improvement as reinstalling trol- 
leys and creating a trolley right-of- 
w ay dow n the center of 25th Street. 
It also included architectural guide- 
lines for storefront improvement. 

I he Ogden Neighborh(M)d Develop- 
ment Agency began to work w ith 
store ow ners to assist them in imple- 
menting the architectural guidelines. 
However, because the number of 
owners is large and the extent of 
their commitment to the re\ italiza- 
tion program and design principles 
varied, the staff of the De\elopment 
.Agency decided that a more graphic 
and detailed approach to building 
facade restoration w as needetl than 
that in the w ritten report. 



I he agency commissioned that 
approach; working w ith the Utah 
State Historical Society, they devel- 
oped a list of candidate architectural 
firms to help. P rom that list, they 
selected two firms to w ork w ith the 
De\el()pment Agency and building 
ow ners. The architects produced 
restoration designs and work plans in 
which rehabilitation tasks were care- 
fully itemized. 

Ihe draw ings, w hich shov\ sections 
of the restored streetscape, possibili- 
ties for the sensitive infill of open 
lots, and "how -not-to-do-it exam- 
ples," have proved to be an excellent 
tool for explaining and selling resto- 
ration to building ow ners. The large- 
format graphic presentations enable 
an ow ner to visualize exactly how 
his rehabilitated building could look. 
.\nd the careful listing of tasks has 
aided both ow ners and the State 
Department of Development Ser- 
vices, w hich is funding the repair 
w ork. To date, restoration has been 
completed on some facades, and the 
city is proceeding w ith plans to 



install sidewalks, lighting, trees, and 
street furniture along 25th Street. 

Grantee: 

Ogden Neighborhood Dtnelopment 
Agency 

Project Director: 
Colette Penne 
Participants: 

Scott Parkinson, Director of Com- 
munity Development; Wilson Mar- 
tin, Utah State Historical Society; 
Larry' Jones, Staff Architect, Utah 
Historical Society; Allen D. 
Roberts, architectural historian; 
Wallace N. Cooper II & Assoc., 
Architects; Ronald D. Hales, Inc., 
Architects 

; 

Improving the rear yards of buildings 
along 25 th Street is one of the important 
elemartsoftheplan. Rear entry courts 
will provide access to businesses from a 
parking lot. 
2 

A proposal to add a trolley shuttle service 
to move shoppers through the central busi- 
ness district is being considered. Render- 
ings by architects Hales and Baird. 



122 




"^M»^ 




Presening Portland Neighborhoods 



Recycling Nashville's Waterfront 



Portland, Oregon, has traditionally 
been a cirv of homes, tree-lined 
avenues, dispersed commercial 
areas, and industries; and until very 
recently, its most outstanding archi- 
tecture was residential. On foot, by 
bicycle, in a car, Alfred Staehli 
undertook a one-man study of his 
home town, which produced 700 
photographs and 180 pages of 
detailed architectural historv'. 

Preservation Options for Portland 
Neighborhoods, the single most com- 
prehensive source on Portland his- 
tors' to date, required public meet- 
ings, new spaper publicity, and 
television coverage. lo solicit unre- 
corded historic information and 
documents and to stimulate 
neighborhood interest in historic 
preservation, Staehli talked with 
many old Portland residents. Iheir 
vignettes of ncighborhotxi history 
tell the storv' of their city, quarter by 
quarter, building by building. 

The book has stimulated additional 
research; Portland now has new 
prescrxation legislation and five 



designated and pending historic 
districts, and is about to undertake 
its first comprehensive landmark 
inventory. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Alfred M. Staehli, AIA 
Participants: 

Don B. MacGillivray; Oregon His- 
torical Society; Oregon State His- 
toric Preservation Office; Portland 
Chapter, Ihe American Institute of 
.Architects; Portland Office of 
Neighborhood .Associations 

Preservation Options for Portland 
Neighborhoods is out of print. 



Old South Portland residences against the 
backdrop of urban renewal. Photograph 
by Alfred Staehli. 



Six million visitors and $120 million 
found their w ay to Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, in 1975, but businessmen and 
politicians still felt that the city's 
potential tourist rexenue had hardly 
been tapped. Beginning w ith the 
economic premise that the derelict 
area around the Nashville w aterfront 
w as culling only one-sixth of its 
potential revenue, Robinson Neil 
Bass and Associates devised a master 
plan for its revitalization — a strategy 
w hich pro\ ided an exciting mixture 
of business, housing, and entertain- 
ment functions in the riverfront area. 

The plan garnered cooperation from 
the local government, as w ell as a 
number of private citizens. It called 
for the renovation of historic build- 
ings for offices and housing, a river- 
front park and pedestrian w alkw ay, 
a marina, restaurants, and hotels. 
For Nashville's tw o-hundredth 
birthday, the riverfront park has 
been chosen as a focus of celebration, 
fulfilling planners' ambitions to 
make it once again the front doorstep 
of the city. 



Grantee: 

Robinson Neil Bass and .Associates 

Project Director: 

Robinson Neil Bass 

Participant: 

W illiam Ernest Powell 

1 

Characteristic Victorian style facades. 

Second Avenue, Nashville. 

2 

Detail of characteristic workmanship on 

the fenestration of warehouse district 

structures. 

Photographs courtesy of Neil Bass and 

Associates. 



12.^ 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Conservation and Restoration 




Housemoving 



The sight of a two-story Victorian 
house trundling down the street on 
dollies, pulled by a big trailer truck, 
might strike some as a desperate 
method of historic preservation. In 
fact, house moving is a valid, even 
ingenious, way to preserve sound 
housing stock that might otherwise 
be demolished and to stabilize older 
neighborhoods. 

House Moving and Neighborhood 
Preservation 

Vacant lots, particularly in older res- 
idential districts, frequently attract 
development that is incompatible 
with the character of the existing 
neighborhood. The construction of 
unwelcome buildings, in turn, often 
triggers additional neighborhood 
deterioration and threatens long- 
term residents. At the same time, in 
other neighborhoods or the same 
neighborhood, houses that could not 
be reproduced today without great 
expense are being torn down to make 
way for new development. Some of 
the amenities these houses provide— 
generous dimensions, elaborate 



detailing, or materials of an unusual 
character — are irreplaceable. The 
city of Eugene, Oregon, commis- 
sioned a study to determine whether 
house moving might save existing 
housing stock threatened by chang- 
ing land uses and stabilize estab- 
lished neighborhoods by filling 
vacant lots u ith compatible residen- 
tial structures. 

With a small Arts Endowment 
grant, the study group researched 
and documented house moving proj- 
ects in seven cities across the coun- 
try. House movers were inten iewed 
about the moving process, and a 
series of surveys was conducted to 
determine citizen attitudes toward 
house moving and perception of 
architectural styles in relation to 
given neighborhoods. 

How to Move a House 

The findings of this study are pre- 
sented in an attractive 92-page book- 
let, Housemoving: Old Houses Make 
Good Neighbors. The book describes 
the process of house moving in 



detail, with sf>ecific information 
about the types of houses that may 
be moved and advice on how to find 
candidate houses, vacant lots, and 
compatible neighborhoods. It 
includes technical information about 
preparing a house to be moved, sit- 
ing, structural modifications, financ- 
ing, and permits; then documents 
seven house movings around the 
country, with advice on \\ hat not to 
do and descriptions of what went 
wrong, along \\ ith some lovely suc- 
cesses. Housemoving demonstrates 
that moving a house, if done prop- 
erly, can be a bargain when com- 
pared with new construction. The 
book is a valuable resource for indi- 
viduals or municipalities interested 
in house moving and neighborhood 
conservation, and delightful reading 
as well. 

Grantee: 

City of Eugene, Oregon, Depart- 
ment of Housing and Community 
Conser\ation 

Project Director and Editor: 
Paul H. Osbom, City of Eugene 



Participants: 

S. Gregory Lipton and Rosaria 
Hodgdon, researchers and authors; 
Linda Dawson, special staff assis- 
tance, graphics, and layout 

Housemoving: Old Houses Make Good 
Neighbors is available from the City of 
Eugene, Oregon. 



Each utility affected must approve the 
route from the original lot to the new 
lot. The height of the house on the dollies 
must be measured for its relationship to 
the height of the existing lines. Utilities 
can usually raise their lines to allow the 
house to move underneath; they will 
charge for this service. At no additional 
charge, the house mover may be permitted 
to lift wires and swivel traffic signals 
upward to provide more clearance. If the 
house is too tall to pass under, lines can be 
cut, dropped, and the house moved over 
them. However, this procedure should be 
avoided, if possible. The cost of cutting 
and reconnecting the wires will usually be 
higher than traveling an extra distance. 
Illustration by Linda Dawson. 



124 




Improving a Warehouse District 



Savannah, Georgia, residents are 
well versed in the economics of res- 
toration activities. In the late 1950s 
and 1960s, the citv attracted world- 
wide attention and praise for restor- 
ing more than eight hundred struc- 
tures in the 2!/;-mile historic 
downtow n district. When the pres- 
ent ation movement began to reach 
Savannah's nineteenth-centur\' dis- 
trict the Savannah Landmark Reha- 
bilitation Project. Inc. (SLRP), was 
formed. It resolved that restoration 
would not destroy the diversirv of 
the X'ictorian streets, and that 
longtime, low income residents 
would not be uprooted as properrv 
values increased. 

Today, Savannah's boldest renova- 
tion effort has proved that neighbor- 
hoods can be revitalized and still pro- 
vide a human-scale environment for 
all tv'pes of people. SLRFs breath- 
taking goal was to drive out slum- 
lords and purchase and restore six 
hundred of the twelve hundred 
structures in the \ ictorian district. 
This was to be done using the man- 
power of district residents and by 



renting homes back to the tenants at 
costs they could afford. 

Started with a small seed grant from 
the Arts Endowment in 1975, the 
SLRP success stor>' of renovation 
\\ ithout displacement continues to 
be a remarkable example of what its 
director calls "the right of everv per- 
son to have a decent home." 

Grantee: 

Savannah Landmark Rehabilitation 

Project, Inc. 

1,2 

Restoration n'ork undertaken on Price 
Street in Savannah, Georgia's Historic 
Victorian District. Photograph by 
Savannah Landmark Rehabilitation 
Project, Inc. 



A Cleveland, Ohio, architect looks at 
his city's neglected and dilapidated 
warehouse district and sees hotels, 
restaurants, offices, shops, loft 
apartments— a potential Greenwich 
Village. In a study commissioned by 
the Cleveland Landmark Commis- 
sion, \\ illiam Gould/Associates, 
Inc., discovered a forty-acre gold 
mine of architecturally significant 
historic buildings and untapped real 
estate. Close inspection of the com- 
mercial buildings revealed a great 
deal of unused space, which could 
be imaginatively adapted to loft- 
style living. 

Loft space conversion was just one of 
the planner's suggestions; he also 
proposed enticements like tax abate- 
ments, land cost write-dow ns, pub- 
lic improvements, and new streets as 
being necessary to procure major 
investments from the business 
community. 

This award-winning plan raises new 
hope for the old heart of Cle\ eland's 
commercial life. 



Grantee: 

Cleveland Landmarks Commission 

pAecutive Director: 

John D. Cimperman 

Project Director: 

U'illiam .\. Gould 

Participants: 

Gould/ \ssociates. Inc., Architects 

and Cit\' Planners 

I 

Detail of Perry -Paine Building, famous 
for its great inner court covered by a vast 
expanse of glass. The building v:as 
designed by Cudell & Richardson and 
completed in 1888. Photograph by Gould 
and Associates. 



125 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Conservation and Restoration 





Florence, Arizona's Historic District 



Design Review in Historic Districts 



After several years of economic stag- 
nation, the Arizona town of Florence 
found that its small-town amenities 
and special mix of historic architec- 
ture dating from territorial and early 
stateho(Kl times were suddenly 
attracting urban-weary settlers. 
When the economic and population 
boom that followed began to 
threaten the scenic landscape and 
historic town district, Florence com- 
missioned a study to recommend 
guidelines for conservation and 
development. 

The preservation plan that resulted 
from the study offers legal and eco- 
nomic techniques for preserving the 
architectural integrity of this small 
Southwestern town. The plan has 
been published as a brochure, pam- 
phlet, and well-illustrated book. 

Grantee: 

Town of Florence, Arizona 

Project Director: 

Harris J. Sobin, AIA 

Participants: 

Helen Kessler, associate editor; 

Roger Nichols, history consultant; 



Joseph O'Betka, Mayor of Florence 
and coordination official; The Indus- 
trial Development .\uthority of the 
Town of Florence, Inc. , sponsor; 
Jean Claypool, Town Clerk 

Florence Townsite is available from 
Catalina Publishers, P.O. Box 41491, 
Tucson, Arizona 85717. 



Drawing of proposed restoration for a sec- 
tion of Main Street, Florence, Arizona. 
Drawing by Richard Phillips and Helen 
Kessler. 



What happens after an historic dis- 
trict has been designated? How do 
citizen-composed design review 
boards make complex decisions 
affecting the character of their com- 
munities — decisions requiring a 
knowledge of architecture, history, 
design, and aesthetics, as well as a 
familiarity with the design standards 
of a particular region? Alice Bowsher 
emphasizes that "good decisions 
require more than good taste," and 
her Design Review in Historic Districts: 
A Handbook for Virginia Review Boards 
provides a systematic frame of refer- 
ence for developing policy on design 
regulation. 

The book stresses the substance of a 
board's function — the identification 
and protection of a district's physical 
character — and also examines proce- 
dures and practical aspects of imple- 
mentation and pertinent legal issues. 
.•\lthough prepared for use in the 
state of \ irginia, it addresses the 
concerns of review boards through- 
out the country. 



Grantee and Project Director: 
.\lice Meriwether Bowsher 
Participants: 

William T. Frazier, Robert E. Stipe, 
Frank B. Gilbert, Russell \ . Keune, 
Diane Maddex, Terry B. Morton, 
Carleton Knight III, Stephen N. 
Dennis, Kathryn Welch, John G. 
Zehmer, Ellen Beasley, J. Myrick 
Howard; More than tw enty persons 
who reviewed the handbook and 
were interview ed; Chairmen and 
staffs of Virginia review boards 

Design Review in Historic Districts: A 
Handbook for Virginia Review Boards, 
available from the National Trust for 
Historic Preser\ ation Bookshop. 

1 

The distinctive character of an early 
twentieth century house vanishes with 
colonializing alterations. Shutters bear 
no relation to window size and classical 
details assume curious proportions. Photo- 
graph by John G. Zehmer, Jr. 



[26 




Defining Edges of Historic Districts 



Historic Waterwheel Restoration 



Preservationists, planners, and pub- 
lic officials concerned with maintain- 
ing historic districts find that defin- 
ing the boundaries of their work is 
rarely an easy task. In many munici- 
palities, the "old neighborhood" 
is bounded by buildings that have 
only a limited architectural relation- 
ship to their neighbors. Should such 
buildings be included in a legally 
designated historic district? 

A Guide to Delineating Edges of Historic 
Districts, by the National Trust for 
Historic Preservation, presents 
twenty case studies of existing his- 
toric districts as a way of analyzing 
factors involved in deciding where 
historic districts should start and 
where they should stop. Edge factors 
identified include: original settle- 
ments; architectural styles; natural 
physical boundaries; and political, 
economic, and social determinants. 

Produced under a City Edges grant, 
this report is an excellent working 
tool for use in creating new districts 
and for resolving complex issues gen- 
erated by existing ones. 



Grantee: 

National Trust for Historic 

Preser\ation 

Project Director: 

Russell V. Keune, AIA 

Participants: 

(Consultants) Russell Wright; 

John P. Conron, FAIA; W. Philip 

Cotton, Jr., AIA; Bernard 

Lemann; Robert B. Rettig 

A Guide to Delineating Edges of Historic 
Districts, published by the National 
Trust for Historic Preservation, 1976. 



The nation's first "industrial park" 
was the site last fall of the construc- 
tion of the steel-reinforced concrete 
sluiceway and a 2}/2-ton waterwheel 
this spring, built by area high school 
students and sponsored by the local 
historical commission. These works 
serve as a symbol of the waterpower 
used in many mills and forges of the 
park for more than two centuries. 

War Memorial Park in West Bridge- 
water, Massachusetts, where the 
waterwheel was installed, was pur- 
chased by the town in 1939 under a 
WPA grant as a recreation park. It is 
dotted with mini-dams and stone- 
walled waterways fed by the adja- 
cent Nunkatesset River. The con- 
struction of the waterwheel, a replica 
of one destroyed twenty-five years 
ago by snow and ice, is a source of 
great pride to the West Bridgewater 
community. It is the result of coop- 
eration between the Southeastern 
Regional Vo-Tech High School and 
the West Bridgewater Historical 
Commission with a small grant from 
the National Endowment for the 
Arts. 



Grantee: 

West Bridgewater Historical 
Commission 
Executive Director: 
Marjorie MacDonald 
Project Director: 
Leonard Barrows 
Participants: 

Park, Highway and Water Depart- 
ments; Board of Selectmen; Former 
Bicentennial Committee; Charles 
A. Pickering, engineer planning; 
Administrative, teaching and stu- 
dent personnel of Southeastern 
Regional Vo-Tech High School; 
Lawrence Conant and Frederick 
Baker, Bird Machine Co.; Gerald 
Kelleher, Sargent Supply; William 
and Kenneth Turner, Turner 
Steel Co. 
Photography: 
Alfred Chavas and Francis Beary 



Students from local technical school 
constructing a new waterwheel. Photo- 
graph by West Bridgewater Historical 
Commission. 



127 



Heritage, Conservation, anti 
Planning 



(Conservation and i^cstoration 



B H H H H ■w-.^- — 1 




I a 




1 



Preservation Planning in Small Town 
Historic Districts 

In 1974, the National Trust for His- 
toric Prcscrx ation w as aw ardeci a 
City Options grant to help a number 
of small western municipalities 
explore preservation possibilities in 
their communities. Ihe Trust pro- 
vided technical assistance in the 
fields of planning, law, architecture, 
engineering, real estate, economics, 
and architectural history and has 
produced three publications on pres- 
ervation recommendations for Yreka, 
California; Honakaa, Hawaii; and 
Fort Egbert and Eagle, Alaska. 

The National 1 rust oriented assis- 
tance toward revitalizing commercial 
districts where a sufficient concen- 
tration of old buildings survive to 
constitute an historic district, and 
where clear commitments to preser- 
vation principles exist in both private 
and public sectors. 

The approaches developed by the 
Trust assistance teams may be appli- 
cable to small cities throughout the 
United States. 



Grantee: 

National Trust for Historic 
Preser\ation 
Project Director: 
John Frisbee, Director, Western 
Office, National Trust for Historic 
Preservation 
Participants: 

(Consultants) Roger Holt, Attorney; 
James and Elizabeth Flack and James 
Drimmel, economists; Melvyn 
Cireen, engineer; (N'THP staff) 
Carol Galbraith, John Volz, archi- 
tect; Centrum Foundation; Jefferson 
County Historical Society; Hama- 
kua District Development Council; 
Yreka Historic Preservation Corp.; 
City of Yreka, California; Historical 
Society of Eagle, Alaska; Town of 
Eagle, Alaska; Mr. and Mrs. Quen- 
tin Tomich, Honokaa, Hav\ aii; Mr. 
and Mrs. Fred Meamber, Yreka, 
California 

/ 

Suggested improvements to facades on 

Miner Street, the principal commercial 

avenue in Yreka, California. Photograph 

by the National Trust for Historic 

Preservation. 



Preservation Planning in Upstate 
and Central New York 

The Regional Conference of Histori- 
cal Agencies, formed in 1971, is a 
nonprofit, educational organization 
dedicated to ser\ing large and small 
historical societies, museums, pres- 
ervation agencies, and related insti- 
tutions. Through its programs and 
publications, the Regional Confer- 
ence provides agencies in twenty- 
three counties of northern and 
central New York w ith information 
and assistance. 

In 1977, the staff of the Regional 
(Conference antl Cornell Universitv's 
Preser\ ation Planning \\ Orkshop 
were becoming increasinglv con- 
cerned about the fate of central New 
York State's architectural heritage. 
The area contains inany tow ns and 
villages w hich were established and 
prosperetl during the early nine- 
teenth century due to readilv 
available agricultural land and abun- 
dant w ater pow er. The tw entieth 
centurv, how ever, has taken its toll. 
As local main streets have been 
unable to compete, first w ith larger 
cities and then with shopping cen- 
ters, the economic bases of the vil- 



lages have ercKled. Know ing that 
these small communities, individu- 
allv, did ncit have the means to 
in\ entory, plan for, and preser\e 
their historic resources. Regional 
Conference staff feared the loss of 
the region's unique quality. 

\\ ith help from the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts, the Conference 
and Cornell Universitv's College of 
Architecture, Art and Planning 
launched preservation programs in 
five villages, each v\ ith populations 
under thirteen hundred: Spencer, 
Newark \ alley, Ovid, XakW, and 
Interlaken. With the goal of raising 
public aw areness and imparting 
ideas and skills that could be used to 
start similar projects in the future, 
project teams composed of students 
from the Cornell University Preser- 
vation Planning \\ orkshop, citizens, 
and members of local historical s(x:i- 
eties surs eved and mapped the vil- 
lages, described their historic 
resources, and prepared materials 
that the villages could use for 
National Register nominations, if 
appropriate. 



128 



The project prcxduced an impressive 
array of results, including five inven- 
tories of potential historical districts, 
accurate base maps for the five vil- 
lages, and a set of plans for rehabili- 
tating the storefronts of one. A series 
of new spaper anicles and two radio 
programs— one of which was broad- 
cast nationw ide — have given public- 
ity to the region. But, the real value 
of the project has been the awareness 
and commitment generated in the 
villages. With renewed interest and 
pride, villagers and students have 
undertaken a variety of projects 
w hich range from the publication of 
books and a w alking guide tour to a 
twenty-three-minute professionally 
produced videotape and a traveling 
exhibit. 

Of equal value is the reminder that 
no place is so small that we can 
afford to be unconcerned w ith its 
physical quality and appearance. 
The visual quality of America is 
based in part on its villages, tow ns, 
and rural landscape. Organizations 
that concern themseh es w ith such 
places and, more importantly, are 



able to generate enough communit\- 
participation so that commitment to 
preser\ ation becomes self-perpetuat- 
ing are to be especially commended. 

Grantee: 

Regional Conference of Historical 

Agencies 
RCHA Staff: 
Alice Hemenway and 
Douglas Fischer 
Participants: 

(Cornell faculty) Tania W'erbizky, 
Stuart Stein; (Cornell students) 
.\lar\' Donohue, Roger Reed, Mark 
Reinberger, Elizabeth Hancock Sil- 
lin, Debbie Barlow , Chris Capone, 
.\lelanie Davies, Marjorie Herman- 
son, Banasopit .\lekvichai, Beth 
Meyer, Jay Oschrin, Ann Pendle- 
ton, Russell Riccardi, David 
Shearer, Catherine Stroup; (\illage 
of Interlaken) Interlaken Historical 
Societv', Maurice and Feme Patter- 
son, Ix)uise Acker, John Kellogg, 
Thelma Peabody, mayor, Farmer- 
ville Union Lodge #183 F&A.M; 
(X'illage of Lodi) Lodi Historical 
Societv', Alta Boyer, .Mr. and .Mrs. 
Clayton Brown, .Mildred Covert, 



Charles Jennings, John .Mulford; 
(\ illageof Ovid) South Seneca 
Community Assistance Corp., 
Sonni Sampson, Fdw ard Limner, 
mayor; (\'illage of Spencer) Spencer 
Historical Society, Clark Gamer, 
Jean Alve, Mary Stimson, Aimee 
Riker, PLIinor Bartholomew , .Marvin 
Fisher U; (Village of Newark \ alley) 
Newark X'alley Historical Society, 
Lena Bushnell, Barbara Fox, 
Ross .McGraw , Roland Noble, 
Dorothy Torrey, \ irginia Wood, 
Robert Snyder 



129 



Heritage, Conservation, antl 
Planning 



(Conservation ant! Restoration 




U.S. Custom House at Bowling 
Green 

A vintage 1907 gem of Beaux-Arts 
arehitecture, long a symbol of New 
York City's commercial vitality, 
fell silent when its tenants, the U.S. 
Customs Service, vacated the Cus- 
tom House on Bowling Cireen in 
1973. Its landlord, the U.S. General 
Services Administration, responded 
to the efforts of I he Custom House 
Institute, a coalition of downtown 
Manhattan business people, and the 
New York Landmarks Conservancy 
to find a self-sustaining use appropri- 
ate for the grand building. A feasibil- 
ity study, funded in part by the 
Kndowment, recommended using its 
gracious spaces for a combination of 
commercial and cultural activities. 

This concept was put to the test in 
four summers of cultural program- 
ming between 1976 and 1979, which 
opened the interior to public use for 
the first time in the building's his- 
tory. The success encountered led to 
Congressional authorization to reno- 
vate the Custom House both for fed- 
eral office space and as a unique cul- 
tural center in the heart of Manhattan's 
downtown commercial district. 



Grantee: 

New York Landmarks Conservancy 

Kxecutive Directors: 

Anthony J. Newman (1975), Susan 

Henshaw Jones (1975-1980) 

Project Director: 

Richard S. Weinstein 

Participants: 

The Custom House Institute, James 

D. Wolfensohn, Chairman; New 

York Landmarks Conserv ancy, 

Brendan Gill, Chairman 



Interior of U.S. Custom House on Bowl- 
ing Green. 
2 

The U.S. Custom House on Bowling 
Green. Photograph by Nathaniel 
Lieberman. 



Great Falls Historic District 

The Cireat Falls Historic District, 
America's oldest industrial center, is 
the home of linen thread and the first 
submarine, and a manufacturing 
center for such diverse products as 
silk, the Colt revolver, U'right's air- 
plane, and one-third of the nation's 
locomotives. Proud citizens of Pater- 
son, New Jersey, have rechristened 
Great Falls the "Cradle of American 
Industry." 

Betw een 1974 and 1978, the city of 
Paterson \\ as able to skillfully lever- 
age a series of small Arts Fndow- 
ment seed grants and establish the 
historic district as a catalyst for a 
city-w ide renaissance. P rom a study 
to detennine the feasibility of reacti- 
vating a hydroelectric generating 
plant to programs in support of 
community conservation and studies 
for the creation of a museum and 
multi-media exhibits, funds from 
the Endow ment have helped to 
increase city efforts and community 
participation in the revitalization of 
Great Falls. 



130 




Nebraska Capitol and Environs 



Grantee: 

City of Paterson, Department of 

Communirv Development 

Executive Director: 

Sidney L. Willis 

Project Director: 

Jack R. Stokvis 

Participants: 

Great Falls Development Corp., 

TippieKrugman, Director; Paterson 

Museum, Thomas Peters, Director; 

Bohlin & Powell, architects; Wetzel 

Associates, museum designers; Taft 

Corp., fund raising 

/ 

Historic District hydroelectric plant built 
in 1914, and fed by the Great Falls of the 
Passaic River with its 11 -foot high, 280- 
foot wide cascade. 
2 

Dolphin Jute Mill, one of the largest mills 
in the Historic District, was used to con- 
vert hemp and jute into twine, rope, and 
carpet backing. Photographs by City of 
Paterson, Department of Community 
Development. 



An excellent planning study and the 
splendid architecture of the Nebras- 
ka capitol itself have roused Lincoln 
citizens to take measures to protect 
their historic building and enhance 
the surrounding neighborhood. 

The design for the Nebraska state 
capitol building was the result of a 
national competition held in 1920. 
The architect chosen, Bertran G. 
Goodhue, regarded the nature of the 
land and buildings immediately sur- 
rounding the capitol as integral to its 
visual impact. He intended the capi- 
tol to dominate the flat Nebraska 
landscape, much as gothic cathedrals 
dominate their surroundings. 

In recent years, the blocks around 
the capitol had begun to show signs 
of neglect; the threat of high-rise 
office development finally prompted 
the College of Architecture at the 
University of Nebraska to take 
action. With a grant from the 
National Endowment for the Arts, a 
team from the College of Architec- 
ture made a comprehensive study of 
the capitol area and came up with 



politically practical recommenda- 
tions to develop it into a distinctive 
and inviting center of activity. 

In 1976 the state legislature formed 
the Nebraska State Planning Com- 
mittee to advise state and local go\ - 
emment on the planning, design, 
and control of development and the 
use of the surrounding land. First, 
the committee enacted a city ordi- 
nance restricting building heights 
in the vicinity of the capitol. Next, 
w ith staff assistance from state and 
local planning authorities, they pro- 
duced an urban-design plan for the 
neighborhood. 

Their plan calls for strengthening 
the Capitol's visual position in rela- 
tion to the rest of the dow ntow n 
area. The report describing the plan 
is addressed to the public and con- 
tains specific landscaping and urban- 
design recommendations, \\ hich 
enable people to envision how the 
capitol and its neighborhood might 
function. The plan w on an aw ard 
from Progressive Architecture in 197H 
for urban design and planning. 



Rehabilitation based on the univer- 
sity's plan has begun. Some impor- 
tant buildings are being renovated, 
and a major avenue leading to the 
capitol has been redeveloped. City 
and state historical societies are doc- 
umenting historic sites, and mate- 
rials about the capitol have been sent 
to .secondary schools. 

Grantee: 

University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln College of Architecture 
Project Directors: 

Roger Schluntz and Thomas Laging 
Participants: 

Robert Hanna, .\I.\, capitol preser- 
vationist; Law rence A. f'nersen, 
FAIA, landscape consultant; 
David Murphy, history sur\ ey; 
Cecil Steward, Dean, College of 
Architecture 
Illu.stration: 
Ihomas Laging 

/ 

Bertran G. Goodhue's winning entry in 
the 1920 Competition for the Nebraska 
State Capitol Building. Photograph by 
Nebraska State Historical Society. 



131 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Land Use and Planning 



Scenic Preservation 



Broken Serenity 



The California coast is a special 
place. Magnificent cliffs that slowly 
descend to the sea over hundreds of 
miles, ever-changing patterns of 
light and color, sea and land, inter- 
mingle with fine urban waterfronts 
to make the coastline one of the most 
beautiful in the world. These partic- 
ular scenic qualities are recognized 
internationally and are highly valued 
by Californians who have become 
concerned in recent years as the 
landscape has become marred by oil 
rigs, housing, resorts, and roads. 

The spectre of a wall of development 
was a major factor leading to the pas- 
sage of the Coastal Initiative (Propo- 
sition 20) legislation in 1972, which 
created the (>alifornia Coastal Com- 
mission to oversee the improved 
planning and management of the 
state's coastal resources. A prime 
objective of the California Coastal 
Zone Plan is to preserve and enhance 
the visual qualities of the coast. 

To meet this objective and provide a 
basis for legislated protection and 
management, the California Coastal 



Commission obtained professional 
design assistance from architect and 
planner William Liskamm. Liskamm 
undertook three tasks: to identify the 
valuable visual qualities of the Cali- 
fornia coastline and uses that would 
diminish them; to develop appear- 
ance and design guidelines for the 
preservation, enhancement, and res- 
toration of this visual resource; and 
to designate a means for implement- 
ing these guidelines. 

With the aid of an Arts Kndowment 
research grant, Liskamm surveyed 
coastal landscape conditions, inter- 
viewed public and private organiza- 
tions and individuals who inhal)it 
and use the coast, and studied theo- 
ries of visual perception. His com- 
prehensive examination ot those fea- 
tures of the California coast \\ hich 
contribute to its special appearance 
and ambiance were developed into 
guidelines for design that emphasize 
the conservation and enhancement of 
specific coastal values and aesthetics. 
1 he proposed guidelines were pre- 
sented to statew ide and regional 
commissions and public hearings; 



and revisions recommended in the 
meetings then v\ ere incorporated. 

Ihe guidelines proposed by 
Liskamm formed the basis of the 
Appearance and Design Element 
adopted in 1976 by the California 
Coastal Zone Conservation Commis- 
sion and incorporated into the legis- 
lation. The California coastal plan 
has become a model for many other 
coastal states, which have instituted 
coastal management programs under 
the auspices of the federal Office of 
Coastal Zone Management. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
William H. Liskamm, FAIA, AICP 
Participants: 

(California Coastal Commission staff 
in 1974— 75) Joseph Bodovitz, Execu- 
tive Director; Jack Schoop, Planning 
Director; William Travis, Coastal 
Planner; Dolores .Malloy, graphics 



The Department of Landscape 
Architecture of the Harvard Gradu- 
ate School of Design and the Rural 
Communities Institute of \\ estem 
State College have joined together to 
produce a quality-of-life plan recom- 
mending management strategies to 
accommodate the grow th that will 
occur if proposed mining ventures 
take place in Gunnison County, Col- 
orado. The study has fueled signifi- 
cant public debate o\ er the impacts 
of growth and has brought about 
changes in land use planning and 
management. 

"Elbow Room" 

People settle in Gunnison Count\', 
located approximately three hundred 
miles southw est of Denver, b^ecause 
they value its quality of life, espe- 
cially the v\ide open spaces and 
long vistas that create both the sense 
and reality of spaciousness, and the 
feeling that one can travel for miles 
without seeing another human 
being. In Gunnison County, this 
space is called "elbow room." 



132 






I^FaBSHt! 


HB^>?^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


s 




Sh 








Yet just below the surface of the land 
are mineral deposits of uranium and 
oil shale \\ hich promise to ease the 
energy crisis. The existence of the 
minerals together \\ ith pressures 
from the recreation industry to move 
in on the rural Colorado land have 
caused debate over growth and 
change. In Gunnison County, the 
issue was brought to a head by a pro- 
posal from AMAX, Inc., to mine 
molybdenum, a mineral used in 
making alloys, at Alount Saint 
Emmons, which many residents 
consider to be the spiritual svmbol of 
the county. 

Perceiving the problems, the Rural 
Communities Institute called on stu- 
dents and faculty from the Harvard 
Graduate School of Design to collab- 
orate on an analysis of the growth 
and change that is considered inevi- 
table for the region, and to make rec- 
ommendations for managing it. To 
obtain data about the characteristics 
that constitute and maintain the 
quality of life, the study team 
assessed components of the natural 
environment, the rural character. 



and the economic base of Gunnison 
County. They then projected 
changes that would result from a 
large mining operation and sug- 
gested responses, including an 
appropriate site for mineral tailing 
ponds and an associated mill. 

Delimiting Growth and Change 

Concluding that high growth could 
adversely affect the quality of life in 
the county, the study team prepared 
a qualit)'-of-life plan calling for mini- 
mum development in the most beau- 
tiful and scenic areas — the valleys 
and ranchlands— and areas of natural 
hazards. New development would 
be reserved for existing towns, where 
building costs would be lower and 
the provision of public services more 
efficient than in the countryside. 

The citizens of Gunnison County 
have used the study recommenda- 
tions to clarify the issues of growth 
and change as a source of reliable 
information for public debate. A 
videotape, a slide show, and six 
thousand copies of a new spaper pre- 



pared by the study team have been 
widely disseminated throughout 
Gunnison County. .\s a result of this 
information, the town of Crested 
Butte has increased the amount of 
surrounding land that will remain as 
open space, and the site proposed for 
the mine's mill and tailing pond by 
the study team is being considered 
by the mining company. The team's 
data map system has been passed on 
to the county planners and changes 
in the county land use plan are being 
made. 

The methodology used to assess the 
need for growth and change in Gun- 
nison may w ell be applied to other 
counties and local governments fac- 
ing threatened disturbances to their 
quality of life. 

Grantee: 

Rural Communities Institute, 

Western State College 

Project Director: 

Carl Steinitz, Department of 

Landscape Architecture, Harvard 

University 



Participants: 

(Department of Landscape Architec- 
ture) Jehanne Arslan, Randall Arthur, 
Michael Bryant, Timothy Day, 
Harry Dodson, Rosemary Farley, 
Laura Garibotti, James Greenwood, 
Hugh Keegan, Gary Kesler, 
Clifton Ia)we, Robert Micsak, 
Robert Morse, Richard Murphy, 
Sheila Murray, Jody Xaderi, Lance 
Neckar, Joel Peters, William Ren- 
ner. Rem Shackelford, Christopher 
Shears, Ritchie Smith; United States 
Department of the Interior, Bureau 
of Land Management; United 
States Department of Agriculture, 
Forest Ser\ ice; John Cabouch, Rural 
Communities Institute 

1,2 

Serenity. Photographs courtesy of Town 

of Crested Butte Archives. 

Condominium development . Photographs 
by Dick Murphy, Jr. 



133 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Land Use and Flan nine 



Maine's Land Use Handbook 



Maine's wealth is derived largely 
from tourism, forestry, and fish- 
ing— all dependent on healthy natu- 
ral resourees. In recent years grow- 
ing development pressures have 
prompted the enaction of laws to 
protect the environment and main- 
tain clean air and \\ ater, w hich all 
Mainers value and on which most 
depend for their liveliho(Ki. liut by 
the mid-iyyOs, these laws had prolif- 
erated beyond a citizen's practical 
capacity to understand or apply 
them. The staff of Maine's Land Use 
Regulation Commission (LURC) 
believed that a clear, well-designed 
handbook would help citizens under- 
stand and respect the laws. LURC, 
with Kndow nient support, set about 
producing a hantlbook that would 
infonn citizens about land use, gi\ e 
them ideas and information that 
would save them money, and add to 
their enjoyment of their property. 

Careful research and planning w ere 
carried out prior to producing the 
Land Use Handbook. The research 
team identified the most common 
types of de\ elopment occurring in 



.Maine in relation to existing land use 
law s and regulations, detennined the 
kind of information that would bene- 
fit land ow ncrs most, and experi- 
mented with various graphic tech- 
niques to produce a readable format. 

I he handbook comprises six book- 
lets in a looseleaf notebook. Section I 
serves as a guide and comprehensive 
index to the other sections. Section 

II explains most of the important 
laws that relate to land use and 
building in Maine. Section III 
describes how LURC plans and reg- 
ulates. Section IV explains how to 
apply for a building permit. Section 
V contains design ideas to assist 
home builders, subdividers, and 
homeowners. Section VI, written 
for small wood lot owners, discusses 
erosion control tor logging jobs. 

The handbook is innovative and per- 
tinent, its concept transferable. It is 
well organized and formatted, using 
photographs, illustrations, and dia- 
grams profusely to communicate 
technical infonnation to a general 
audience. It succeeds in making 



mundane planning and design infor- 
mation interesting. By demonstrat- 
ing that go(xl verbal and visual 
communication is a \ ital, though 
sometimes neglected, part of the 
planning process, the handbook 
expands the horizons of planners, as 
well as the public. 

Maine planners believe that the 
handbook has filled a critical need in 
a state in w hich sound en\ ironmen- 
tal laws and land use controls are 
well established and have stood the 
test of time, but now need to be 
made part of the public's vocabulary. 
The handbook is already beinsj 
v\ idely used. It is to l)ecome part of 
the curriculum in the Junior High 
School level .Maine Studies Program. 
Logging companies are distributing 
its section on logging in both Knglish 
and French versions. In addition, it 
has received one of three 1979 .Meri- 
torious Program \w ards from the 
American Planning Association. 

(irantee: 

.Maine Department of Conservation, 

Land Use Retjulation Commission 



Executive Director: 
Kenneth Stratton 
Project Director: 
Brian Kent 
Participants: 

Jane Frost, illustrations and design; 
Robert Scribner, research; Chris 
.\yres and .Mike Mahan, photo- 
graphs; Richard Barringer, Commis- 
sioner; Xancy Ross, Planning 
Director 

Land Use Handbook is available from 
the Maine Department of Conserva- 
tion, Land Use Regulation Commis- 
sion, .\ugusta. 



134 




Conserving the \ irginia Piedmont 



The \ irginia Piedmont provides a 
picture book example of America's 
historic agrarian countryside. The 
culture and lifestyle of the region 
come from farming; more than sixty 
percent of the land is still being culti- 
vated or used for pasture. How ever, 
by the mid-1970s, the pressures of 
urbanization from Washington, D.C., 
Charlottesville, and, to some extent, 
Richmond raised fears that the 
valuable agricultural land, the pas- 
toral beauty and open space might 
be lost \\ ithout careful planning. 

Because the public \\ as unaware of 
the implications of continuing loss of 
farmland to suburban shopping cen- 
ters and houses and unschooled in 
procedures for controlling haphazard 
growth, no policy had been estab- 
lished for managing and regulating 
the use of the area's fine physical 
resources. 

In 19"4, the Piedmont Environmen- 
tal Council addressed the problem 
by initiating a research and action 
project w ith Kndou ment support. 
The work initiated by the Council 



was designed both to produce a pro- 
fessional environmental plan and to 
involve the diverse population in the 
planning process and in understand- 
ing the recommendations that would 
result. The professional planning 
team assessed the region's visual and 
environmental quality from four per- 
spectives: the physical configuration 
of the Piedmont region, the nature of 
the open space, the character of the 
towns, and details of spatial quality. 
Based on their assessments, the 
Council pnKiuced a number of writ- 
ten and graphic reports that empha- 
sized the visual components of con- 
servation for natural areas and 
designs for townscapes as guides for 
the region's residents. 

At the completion of the study, the 
Piedmont Environmental Council 
published a manual. Environtnental 
Consercation: A Citizen s Sourcebook, 
w ritten on the premise that the 
region's residents care enough about 
their environment to act against 
threatening development. 



Grantee: 

Piedmont Environmental Council 

President: 

Chaplin B. Barnes 

Project Director: 

James H. W. Marshall 

Participants: 

(Council staff) W. P. Dinsmoor 

White, Stephen H. Lessels; 

(Consultants) Graham Ashw orth. 

Garland A. Okerlund, Thomas 

W. Richards, Robert Stipe 



Pastoral scenes such as this in the Virginia 
Piedmont are ixhat citizens organized to 
conserve. Photograph by Piedmont Envi- 
ronmental Council. 
2 

The Southern States Cooperative Build- 
ing in AJaJison , Virginia, has great 
character and interest. Photograph by 
Piedmont Environmental Council. 



135 



Heritage, Conservation, ami 
Planning 



Land Lsc and Planning 







'*<-- '^r'^'i§^i^0^ 



Y/r- 



Sugarloaf Regional Trails 



In 1973 when a local utility company 
in pastoral Montgomery County, 
Maryland, wanted to build an 
advanced waste-water treatment 
plant, irate citizens banded together 
to oppose it and undertake the re- 
search necessary to stop the expan- 
sion. Ihe citizens' organization 
called itself Sugarloaf Regional 
Trails, taking as its namesake Sugar- 
loaf Mountain, only 1300 feet high, 
but dominating the region by virtue 
of its almost perfect conical shape. 
The organization itself is an ad hoc 
collection of planners, researchers, 
historians, and citizens dedicated to 
fostering an appreciation of the Sug- 
arloaf Region's unique landscape and 
historical landmarks; its leader and 
chairman of the board is PVederick 
Gutheim. 

Approximately 400 volunteers have 
contributed their services to gather 
research on approximately 400 of the 
1000 historic sites in the area. These 
range from single-family dwellings 
to whole communities and include 
crossroads settlements, rural sites, 
churches, schools, and social gather- 



ing places, as well as country stores, 
post offices, warehouses, mills, 
quarries, and factories, and roads, 
canals, railroad and trolley lines. 
Volunteers receive training in 
research and are supervised by pro- 
fessionals during the course of their 
work. 

Since its creation seven years ago, 
Sugarloaf Regional Trails has pro- 
duced over a dozen guides to histori- 
cal walking, hiking, biking, and 
canoe trails in the area. The group 
has also worked in a staff capacity for 
the County Advisory Committee on 
Historic Preservation to develop an 
historic preservation plan and pro- 
vide research antl information on 
important landmarks. 

In addition to guides and historic 
preser\ ation plans, the group has 
developed a proposal for a trail sys- 
tem that w ould tie the w estern end 
of the county into the Sugarloaf 
bikeway network. The county has 
included the system in its master 
plan, although it has not yet been 
built. 



.\ nonprofit organization started 
with Kndou ment funds, Sugarloaf 
Regional I rails is now sponsored by 
the Montgomery County Planning 
Board, the .Maryland Historical 
Trust, and Stronghold, Inc. The 
group has been recognized nationally 
and has received two coveted local 
aw ards for historic preservation and 
environmental education. 

Grantee: 

Stronghold, Inc. /Sugarloaf Regional 
Trails 

Kxecutive Director: 
Gail Rothrock 
Project Director: 
Frederick Gutheim, Chairman of 
the Board of Directors, Sugarloaf 
Regional Trails 
Participants: 

Edwin Weselv, volunteer coordina- 
tor; Stuart Miner, trail design coor- 
dinator; William H. Potts, landscape 
design consultant; (Sponsors) .\lont- 
gomerv' County Planning Board, 
Sugarloaf Citizens Association 



From ''The Farm Traill' one of several 
guide brochures published by Sugarloaf 
Regional Trails. Draiving by Harry 
Jaecks. 



136 




rVs 



^-^^f^ 



^Vv-r 



Cincinnati Hillsides 



For the city they enclose, the hill- 
sides of Cincinnati, Ohio, provide a 
unique topography having aesthetic 
and environmental value. Until 
recently, physical barriers discour- 
aged the development of the steep 
slopes, but now, new earth-moving 
equipment makes development 
possible. 

Concerned about the potential loss of 
their scenic hillsides to development, 
the Cincinnati Institute has been 
able to alert citizens to the precarious 
state of their environs and to articu- 
late public attitudes through a local 
media campaign, with the aid of an 
Endowment grant awarded in 1973. 
The Institute initiated, supported, 
and published basic research for the 
City Planning Commission. It for- 
mulated development guidelines, as 
well, that reflected citizens' values, 
environmental factors, and criteria 
delineated by experts. The guide- 
lines enabled the city government to 
devise a legal system of environmen- 
tal quality zoning for regulating 
development and preventing further 
blight. 



Since 1973, the project has raised 
$212,000 in addition to the $40,000 
grant. In addition to increased public 
awareness of the value of the hill- 
sides and creation of special zoning 
ordinances, the grant has brought 
about the formation of the Hillside 
Trust. This citizen action organiza- 
tion acquires and holds strategic hill- 
side land for the time period neces- 
sary to plan for its proper use. 

Grantee: 

The Cincinnati Institute 

Project Director: 

E. Pope Coleman, President, the 

Cincinnati Institute 

Participants: 

William A. Carney, Landscript 

Associates; Robert E. Manley, 

Attorney; Paul D. Spreiregen, AIA, 

architect 



Illustration from ''Cincinnati Hillsides 
Development Guidelines." Drawing by 
E. Pope Coleman. 



;37 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Land Use and Planning 




/ 




Residential Zoning for San 
Francisco 

In the late 1960s, neigh borho(Kl resi- 
dents of San Francisco began to 
lobby for reduced housing densities 
to protect their neighborhoods from 
exploitative and insensitive develop- 
ment. By 1974, many residents real- 
ized that lowered densities had nega- 
tive social ant! economic effects and 
that nodirect relationship existed 
between lowered tiensity and neigh- 
borhcxxi quality. In that year, the 
San I'tancisco Department of City 
Planning undertook a comprehensive 
revision of its residential zoning con- 
trols that aimed to strike a balance 
between preserx ation and change. 

Through a grant from the Arts 
Endow ment, faculty and graduate 
students in the Architecture Depart- 
ment at the University of (California 
at Berkeley undertook a study of San 
Francisco's residential zoning as con- 
sultants to the City Planning Depart- 
ment. Their report, "Change With- 
out Loss," proposed a new set of 
urban design regulations to preserve 
the character of existing neighbor- 
hocxjs while retaining sufficient flex- 
ibility to encourage the construction 



of new market-rate housing. After 
three years of work involving the 
cooperation of preservationists, 
developers, realtors, and economists 
as \\ ell as planners, "(change U ith- 
out Loss" became the basis for signif- 
icant sections of the Planning Com- 
mission's new zoning ordinances. 

Crantees: 

(1975) University of California/ 
iierkeley. Department of Architec- 
ture; (1976) San Francisco Depart- 
ment of City Planning 
Project Directors: 
(1975) Daniel Solomon; (1976) 
Mark VVinogrond 
Participants: 

(1975) Jay Claiborne, Assistant 
Director; (1976) Robert Passmore, 
Zoning Administrator; Joanna Cal- 
lenbach, Sharon Lee, Toby Levy, 
Fduardo .\taldonado, Albert Oliver, 
Heidi Richardson, Thomas Ciordon 
Smith, Keith Wilson 



1,2 

Traditonal curb cuts and alternative 
schemes: One of a series of pictorial studies 
proposing new urban design regulations 
that would achieve a balance between 
preservation and change in existing San 
Francisco neighborhoods. Drawings 
by Daniel Solomon, architect. 



Suburban Conservation 

Older suburban communities along 
the Potomac River in Montgomery 
County, .Maryland, cognizant of the 
costly cycle of deterioration and 
rehabilitation that plagues urban 
centers, ha\ e produced a prototypi- 
cal suburban conservation plan 
intended to forestall degeneration in 
their aging neighborhoods. U orking 
closely \\ ith county planners, gradu- 
ate students from Cieorge Washing- 
ton University and citizen xolunteers 
from the Potomac \ alley League ini- 
tiated a study of urban conservation 
areas on the principle that future 
grow th must be compatible w ith the 
character and needs of the region, 
and that careful attention must be 
paid to the region's air, w ater, land, 
and energy resources. 

The prototype plan and ordinance 
that resulted from the study is 
designed to protect and preser\ e the 
special man-made and natural 
resources of suburban areas. The 
plan pro\ ides the procedure by 
w hich citizens can apply for the des- 
ignation "Suburban Conservation 
District." Once designated, any pro- 



138 




North Inglewood Industrial Park 



posals for land use changes v\ould be 
made subject to a special review by a 
Conservation Area Re\ iew Board to 
determine the compatibility of the 
proposed change \\ ith the character 
of the area. 

The concept of a conservation dis- 
trict combines the independently 
established principles of zoning and 
other land use controls; environmen- 
tal protection; natural resource con- 
servation; historic and archaeological 
preservation; parks, open spaces, and 
outdoor recreation; and better urban 
and regional planning and design. 
To this extent the concept is simply 
evolutionary; it is unique, how ever, 
in one aspect: in providing, for the 
first time, a specific set of criteria, 
administrative processes, and legis- 
lative actions for implementation. 
The plan is currently under review 
in the Montgomery County 
Planning Board. 

Grantees: 

Phase I: America the Beautiful Fund, 

Paul Bruce Dowling, \ ice President; 



Phase II: George Washington 
University, Department of Urban 
and Regional Planning, Dorn C. 
McGrath, Jr. , Professor 
Project Coordinator: 
E. Thomas Burnard 
Participants: 

Potomac Valley League; Graduate 
students in urban and regional plan- 
ning, George Washington Univer- 
sity; Montgomery County Planning 
Board and the Maryland Historical 
Trust, technical assistance 

/ 

Historic suburban trolley station at Glen 
Echo Park, Maryland, illustrates the spe- 
cial architecture in this old Washington 
suburb. Photograph by Dorn McGrath, J r 



Although industrial areas have tradi- 
tionally been isolated from commu- 
nity life, 154 acres of vacant or 
underdeveloped industrial zoned 
property betw een two residential 
neighborhoods prompted the city of 
Inglewo<xi, California, to establish 
an innovative development plan. 

Instead of following planning trends 
that typically recommend either 
locating an industrial area outside 
the city (thereby depriving urban 
dwellers of convenient access to 
work opportunities) or isolating the 
area with landscape buffers, the local 
government decided that an indus- 
trial site, with proper aesthetic and 
environmental quality controls, 
could be a stabilizing and strength- 
ening factor \\ ithin their city. The 
guidelines for the project, made pos- 
sible with Arts Endow ment funds, 
emphasized concerns for physical 
continuity w ith adjacent communi- 
ties, landscaping and land use 
management, effecti\e circulation 
systems, and clear graphic communi- 
cation. Their effective implementa- 
tion has made North Inglew ood 



Industrial Park a prototype of design 
solutions to very' long-standing 
problems. 

Grantee: 

City of Inglewood 

Executive Director: 

Paul Eckles 

Project Director: 

Doug Ford 

Participants: 

Herbert Kahn, AIP, AIA and Rex 

Lotery, FAIA, Kahn Kappe Lotery 

Boccato, Architects/Planners; 

Richard Orne; Martin Wallen, 

traffic consultant; Saul Goldin, 

lighting consultant 

/ 

Exterior wall and landscaping of water 
treatment plant. 
2 

Service yard of the water treatment plant 
has been landscaped by the city. Photo- 
graphs courtesy of Kappe Lotery Boccato, 
Architects /Planners. 



139 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Parks and Open Spaces 






IM 



'r^^^fwr^ 



>vl -i. 



^•>-: s- ■> 







fi.'' 






fe 
fe 















..K^::-*'i*':. 



Backyard Parks 



Boston's Urban Wilds 



Examples from our European ances- 
tors may give underused backyards 
a new life in many American cities. 
The "common green," often a focus 
for European urban life but long 
neglected by American planners, 
may be revived in contemporary 
urban neighborhoods. 

The San Francisco Planning and 
Urban Research group has discov- 
ered that the conversion of under- 
used backyards into common open 
space for recreation can fulfill social 
needs for a shared community area, 
and still retain the individual home- 
owner's privacy. The potential for 
creating small urban parks out of 
neighborho(Kl backyards was the 
focus of this study. With active com- 
munity participation, the shared 
urban backyard may provide one 
.solution to the dwindling supply of 
open space within an accessible dis- 
tance from one's home. 

The study includes planning sys- 
tems and legal methods for imple- 
mentation by citizen groups across 
the country. 



Grantee: 

San Francisco Planning and Urban 

Research (SPUR) 

Project Director: 

Sherwood Stockwell, FAI.\ 

Participants: 

Robert Kirkwood, .\ttomey; Roger 

Hurlburtt, citizens coordinator 

1 

Ladbroke Grove, England's first garden 
suburb, reflects a careful history of open 
space planning and loyalty to the tradi- 
tions of the common green. Fifteen resi- 
dential blocks provide common rear yard 
greenspace for the enjoyment of the occu- 
pants of townhouses and duplexes which 
line the main street. Photograph by 
Aerofilms, Ltd. 



Urban w ilds— the pockets of wilder- 
ness that provide relief to the paved 
monotony and congestion of 
crowded cities and towns. E\ erv city 
has urban wilds — sites passed up for 
development years ago because they 
were too difficult to build upon: rock 
outcrops, wetlands, steep slopes. 
But as population grov\ th reduces 
the amount of available urban land, 
even these "difficult" sites become 
attractive for building and threat- 
ened u ith extinction. 



An Inventory of Urban Wilds 

Realizing these pressures, the city 
of Boston set about to take stock of 
itsduindling suppiv of urban wilds. 
In 1974, the Boston Redevelopment 
.Xuthority, w ith Endowment sup- 
port, initiated an inventorv- of its 
unprotected natural areas. .A project 
team began searching out, examin- 
ing, and recording in detail the char- 
acteristics of Boston's remaining 
wilds. To establish a priority system 
for protection and preser\ ation, each 
area was ranked by its environmental 
significance and the open space needs 



of the neighborhood w here it was 
located. Fhe likelihood of develop- 
ment was also considered. 

In all, the study identified and cata- 
logued 143 urban w ild lands totaling 
more than two thousand acres. Sites 
were found in all of Boston's neigh- 
borhoods except the dow ntow n dis- 
trict. The sites are areas of extraordi- 
nary beauty and diversity, varving 
in size from one-eighth to one hun- 
dred and fifty acres. Fhey have dis- 
tinctive features that often provide 
focal points or recreational opportu- 
nities for the surrounding communi- 
ties, and in many instances reflect 
the history and development of Boston. 

1 he study also recommended that 
the city find v\ ays to protect these 
urban w ilds. Suggestions included 
transferring local and state-ow ned 
land to an appropriate conservation 
or land management body; imple- 
menting conser\ ation restrictions 
agreed to by pri\ ate ow ners ot natu- 
ral areas with an accompanying tax 
incentive; enforcing various land-use 
regulations already in existence; 



140 




soliciting gifts of land from private 
owners to the city or a conservation 
foundation; purchasing land; and 
using rights of eminent domain 
where appropriate. 

Protecting Boston's Urban Wilds 

The study results were so impressive 
and expertly communicated that a 
nonprofit organization, the Boston 
Natural Areas Fund, was created to 
secure permanent title to natural 
areas not yet part of the city park or 
playground system. 

The Natural Areas Fund operates 
under the auspices of Fhe Fund for 
Preservation of Wildlife and Natural 
Areas, established by the Boston 
Safe Deposit and Trust Company in 
1962. In addition to its presenation 
tasks for Boston's urban wilds, the 
Natural Areas Fund seeks to demon- 
strate that the Boston procedure 
could be adapted to other cities. 

Two grants from the PLndou ment 
plus approximately $200,000 col- 
lected from three major Boston foun- 



dations and from individuals have 
enabled Fund staff to check land 
titles, take photographs, and com- 
mission professional real estate 
appraisals of selected sites. The staff 
has made steady progress and since 
November 1977, the Fund has 
received almost $1 million in private 
gifts and state and federal commit- 
ments for the purchase of thirty-five 
acres of natural areas. 

The Fund has targeted fifty natural 
areas for acquisition and/or manage- 
ment. Protecting these sites achieves 
two of the Fund's aims: to increase 
the pleasures of city living, espe- 
cially for those of limited means and 
mobility, and to enhance property 
values. By the time the Fund 
achieves its ambitious goals, millions 
of dollars will have been leveraged. 
Perhaps by that time, too, other 
cities will have discovered local 
patrons who will underwrite similar 
inventories and management 
strategies. 

Grantees: 

Boston Natural Areas Fund, an 



account within The Fund for 
Preservation of Wildlife and 
Natural .\reas; Boston 
Redevelopment Authority 
Project Directors: 
John Blackwell; Elliot Rhodeside 
Participants: 

(Boston Natural Areas Fund) Mayor 
Kevin White, Boston Conservation 
Commission; Public Facilities 
Commission; Real Property Com- 
missioner; (Boston Redevelopment 
Authority) Jasenka Diminic, assis- 
tant project director; Clara Batchelor, 
project staff; V'icki Kayser, editor; 
Pamela Steel, graphic designer 



The only remaining rapids in Boston, on 
the Neponset River in Dorchester. 
2 

A tidal salt marsh at the Neponset River 
reservation in Dorchester. 
3 

Brook Farm and Sawmill Brook, West 
Roxbury. 
4 

A large, undisturbed area of freshwater 
wetlands adjoining Roxbury Latin School 
in the Boston neighborhood of West Rox- 
bury. Photographs courtesy of Elliot 
Rhodeside. 



141 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Parks ami ( )pen Spaces 




Preserving New Jersey's Pine Barrens 



Atlanta Great Park 



Many people are surprised to learn 
that the largest single tract of forest 
cast of the Mississippi River lies 
thirty-five miles south of New York 
City and twenty-five miles east of 
Philadelphia. VVith a City Edges 
grant in 1973, Joyce Haney under- 
took a study of the ecologically 
unique Pine Barrens, the 700,000- 
acrc wilderness in central New Jer- 
sey, to identify ways in which this 
area can be preserved. 

The sandy, highly porous, infertile 
soil of the area supports a very spe- 
cific pine-dominated vegetation 
which is not suitable for intensive 
urbanized uses. Its best kept secret 
and one of its major resources is an 
underground water supply estimated 
at 17.7 trillion gallons. In recent 
years, development has been taking 
place at the edges of the Pine Barrens 
without reference to the special ecol- 
ogy of the area. 

Haney's study points to the need to 
control development in order to pre- 
serve the special ecology and the 
underground water supply. Contin- 



uing public education programs and 
an appropriate political body w ith 
regulatory powers are critical tools in 
this preservation effort. 

Grantee and Project Director: 
Joyce I laney 
Participants: 

Paul Tillman, National Park Ser- 
vice; John Madden, New Jersey 
Department of Community Affairs; 
Dr. Eugene Vivian, Director, Con- 
servation and Environmental Studies 
Center; Pine Barrens P"n\ ironmental 
Council 



Beneath the 700,000 acre forest of pine, 

oak, and cedar that comprises the New 
Jersey Pine Barrens lie aquifers of pure 
water in quantities so large that a city of 
five million could withdraw its daily 
water requirements without diminishing 
the basic supply. 
2 

To protect this unique area and valuable 
underground water supply, development 
controls will have to be instituted by local 
governments within the Pine Barrens 
region. Photographs by Joyce Haney. 



Atlanta, Georgia, saw the potential 
for using 2 19 acres of abandoned 
highw ay rights-of-v\ ay to provide 
new housing opportunities, as the 
result of an extensive study to find 
new uses for land that had been 
cleared for a freew av. Atlanta Great 
Park Planning, Inc., a community- 
based planning group, held a series 
of public meetings and hearings in 
w hich citizens and planners debated 
the trade-offs betw ecn the need for 
low- and moderate-income housing, 
long-temi economic viabilitv, open 
space requirements, and similar 
concerns. 

The report that resulted from these 
meetings calls for 500 to 750 units 
of low - to medium-density housing 
w ith a 75 to 25 owner-rental mix: 
fifteen percent of the housing to 
be subsidized, ten percent to be 
reser\ ed for the clderlv, a self- 
sustaining financing arrangement, 
and public support for nearbv 
affected neighborhocxls. Transpor- 
tation, open space, and economic 
development requirements are also 
addressed. For the dozen or more 



urban areas across the countrv that 
also have abandoned highw ay rights- 
of-w ay, this demonstration study 
could prove useful. 

Grantee: 

.Atlanta Great Park Planning, Inc. 
Project Director: 
Quinn Hudson 
Participants: 

H. Randal Roark, AIA, AICP, 
consultant; Atlanta City Planning 
Department; Dekalb County Plan- 
ning Department; .Maynard Jackson, 
Citv Mavor 



142 




A Lakefront Park in Williams Bay 



The tiny village of Williams Bay 
sits astride a "U" filled with the 
clean blue water of Lake Geneva. 
However, with a road practically at 
water's edge and no place for people 
to stroll and enjoy the view s, over 
the years the lo\ ely lakefront had 
lost much of its potential. When a 
contest emerged over development 
rights for the lakefront property, 
beleaguered city fathers turned to an 
architecture firm and asked them to 
produce a design plan for a lakefront 
park. 

With /\rts Endowment support, the 
architects began work by developing 
a set of criteria on which a lakefront 
design would be based. Using these 
criteria, they designed and sent a 
questionnaire to the villagers, asking 
their preferences. Four hundred citi- 
zens responded that they \\ anted the 
village to maintain o\\ nership and 
control of the lakefront and with the 
following preferences for develop- 
ment: a beautiful park, improved 
w ater quality, w atersports programs, 
separation of the functional areas, 
improved parking, and an adjacent 



marsh designated as a natural pres- 
ervation area. 

The landscape plan, w hich took two 
years to develop, has met the resi- 
dents' criteria. It relocates the road 
and clearly defines \ arious areas by 
function, increases parklands, orga- 
nizes vehicle parking in unobtrusive 
and logical locations, provides pedes- 
trian w alks along the lakefront and a 
landscape of human scale. 

The $800,000 needed to undertake 
the project w as raised through gen- 
eral obligation notes issued by the 
village. The villagers are justly 
proud of their accomplishment, as 
expressed by the former village pres- 
ident, Herbert E. Erikson: 

Where there was ugly barren ground 
there are mounds of earth sculptured with 
artistic skill and crowned with foliage. 
Where there was an ugly road there is 
now a controlled access road so designed to 
enhance the pastoral beauty of the Village 
lakefront. Where there was no area for 
pedestrian leisure there are at least 
four 



Historically speaking, no other event or 
construction has affected the positive 
growth of this community since its incor- 
poration in 1919. This lakefront park is 
the key to the hometown feature of Wil- 
liams Bay, Wisconsin. It is the creation 
that will sell people on our Village for 
another fifty years. In a time when devel- 
opers are ravenous in their destruction 
of beauty of the type described above, 
Williams Bay has saved its lakefront 
for posterity. 

Grantee: 

\ illage of Williams Bay 
Project Director: 
R. I homas Jaeger, AI.\ 
Participants: 

Village Board and Plan Commission, 
Village of Williams Bay; Jaeger, 
Kupritz Ltd., Architects & Planners; 
David/Siska & .\ssoc. Ltd., Land- 
scape Architects; Jensen and John- 
son, Engineers; Thomas A. Lothian, 
Frustee and Chairman, Finance and 
Ordinance Committee 



Architects' plan for lakefront 
development. 



143 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Parks and Open Spaces 



An Historic Industrial Park 



In the area surrounding the conflu- 
ence of the I ludson and Mohaw k 
rivers in upstate New York, private 
citizens and public officials are 
beginning to recognize the historic 
importance and future potential of 
their region's legacy of nineteenth 
century buildings and industrial cen- 
ters. By using these industrial relics 
to promote tourism and spread 
knowledge of past Hudson-Mohawk 
manufacturing enterprises, the resi- 
dents of five communities hope to 
create a climate in which new invest- 
ment v\ ill end recent years in w hich 
the communities have been "eco- 
nomic backwaters." Residents also 
hope to revitalize the area economi- 
cally and socially by adapting oUl 
factory buildings to new uses. 

A small Endowment grant enabled 
the Hudson-Mohawk Industrial 
Gateway, a nonprofit educational 
corporation, to extensively survey 
the region's industrial heritage and 
study its potential for revival by rec- 
ognizing and adapting industrial 
remnants to other uses. The region, 
which ip.ciudes the cities and towns 



of Troy, Cohoes, Waterliet, Green 
Island, and VVaterford, was an 
industrial center in the nineteenth 
century. Water power and water 
transportation caused the area to 
grow rapidly; booming commerce 
provided capital for the early devel- 
opment of iron, textiles, and many 
other industrial enterprises that used 
new technologies and vast streams of 
immigrant labor. .Many of the mills, 
worker housing districts, and other 
nineteenth century commercial and 
residential areas remain intact. 

The Gatew ay study produced two 
recommendations based on that leg- 
acy: that the region be developed as 
a tourist and educational resource 
through which the public might 
appreciate the industrial foundation 
on which the area grev\ ; and that as 
many as possible of the remaining 
buildings be rehabilitated. Acting on 
these recommendations, the Ciate- 
way planned a tourist route that 
encompassed the important land- 
marks in the five communities, pub- 
lished maps and guides for the tour 
network, and began promoting pub- 



lic visits to historic industrial sites. 
Ihev next ran an education program 
for ()\\ ners of architecturally and his- 
torically significant buildings. Cur- 
rently, the Gateway is issuing a 
series of monographs on the most 
significant historic buildings and 
districts in the region. 

One of the difficulties faced by the 
Gatew ay w as the need to w ork w ith 
several local government authorities. 
The political fragmentation pre- 
ventetl the Cjatev\ ay from coordinat- 
ing the project regionally; how ever, 
thev did convince the Icxral govern- 
ments of the need for cooperative 
links in their heritage programs. 
This idea led the New York State 
legislature in 1977 to create an urban 
cultural park highlighting industrial 
heritage throughout the Hudson- 
Mohawk area. 

The new park does not conform to 
the traditional notion of a park w ith 
green spaces confined w ithin certain 
boundaries; rather it is a netw ork of 
sites, joined in a heritage trail, which 
provides interesting educational 



experiences for visitors. The park 
w ill be governed by a commission, a 
single entity that the CJatew ay can 
w ork with in developing the entire 
region's industrial heritage program. 

In addition, an estimated $3 million 
in rehabilitative work has begun on 
several important buildings in the 
region, including the Burden Iron 
Companv office building. The 
building w ill be used as an orienta- 
tion center for the heritage trail, the 
Cluett, Pealxxly & Co. Bleacher)- on 
Peebles Island, two firehouses, and 
the Ogden lextile Mill in ("ohoes. 
Ihe Gatew ay has also pro\ ided tech- 
nical assistance that has enabled the 
W. & L. W. Gurley Factory to re- 
main in the companv's original 1862 
building and continue production 
while modernization is under way. 

Retaining industn' in the area is 
a top priority in New York State. 
Ihe development of the Hudson- 
.\lohaw k's potential as an example of 
urban revitalization through historic 
preservation and interpretation has 
just begun. I he Gatew ay has 



144 




•^:^s^ 



■'^ V ."^:.;*JP;- '■*' 




Cadwalader Park 



already brought about a marked new 
appreciation of the area's industrial 
heritage among area residents and 
elected officials on the local and state 
levels. The business community 
now has confidence in the recom- 
mendations and technical assistance 
provided by the (iatew ay and looks 
to them to continue leading the 
region's economic and architectural 
revival. 

Grantee: 

Hudson-Mohaw k Industrial 
Gateway 

Executive Director: 
Thomas P. McGuire 
Project Director: 
John Mesick 
Participants: 

Staff and Board iMembers, Hudson- 
Mohawk Industrial Gateway; John 
Mesick, Mendel, .Mesick, Cohen, 
and VVaite, Architects; John Sher- 
wood, Hammer-Siler-George, Econ- 
omists; Diana Waite, historian; Bart 
Thibadeau, historian; Harris-Kerr- 
Forster; Roland Hummel; N.\SCO 
Associates; Tersh Boasberg; Joseph 
Kenick; Douglas Clinton 



1 

The Burden Office Building was donated 
to the Hudson-Mohawk Industrial Gate- 
way in 1974 and has been undergoing res- 
toration as a visitor /community educa- 
tion center for the Hudson-Mohawk 
Urban Cultural Park. Photography by 
G. Stephen Draper, Hudson-Mohawk 
Industrial Gateway. 



''This park, this is where I come to get 
away from it all. . . I suppose if I lived in 
the suburbs, I wouldn't need it so badly T 

Like many industrial cities, Tren- 
ton, New Jersey, has its share of 
financial difficulties. Real estate 
taxes are high, and the demand for 
public ser\ ices is tremendous. But 
Cadwalader Park, which was 
designed by Frederick Law Olm- 
stead and is the site of a man-made 
waterway that flow s through the 
city, has been the focus of efforts by 
civic groups concerned v\ith its pres- 
ervation. A City Options Grant 
awarded in 1975 allowed Trenton's 
Department of Planning and Devel- 
opment to draw up a master plan for 
the park which addresses the nature 
of man-made w aterways, the need 
for urban recreational opportunities, 
and the history and ecologv' of the 
Delaware and Raritan Canal. 
Ihrough a series of workshops and 
public hearings, citizen participation 
became a key ingredient in the plan- 
ning process. The city is now install- 
ing a bike path along the canal, con- 
structing a state park at the Battle 



Monument, and restoring Ellarslie 
Mansion as the Trenton Museum. 

Grantee: 

City of Trenton, Department of 
Planning and Development 
Project Director: 

John P. Clarke, former Executive 
Director 
Participants: 

Fred Tra\ isano and Lee Weintraub, 
urban design; Kelley Reports, edit- 
ing; Fritts Golden and John 
Rodgers, ecologists; George 
Naw rocky and Mark Sherman, 
graphics and photography 



145 



Heritage, Conservation, and 
Planning 



Parks and Open Spaces 




The Gallagator Linear Park 



A Park Along the Bronx River 



An abandoned railroad right-of-\\ ay 
and grow ing interest in "linear lei- 
sure activities" made the Gallagator 
Linear Park in Bozeman, Montana, a 
natural alternative to the traditional, 
contained urban park. Growing bat- 
talions of joggers, bicyclists, cross- 
country skiers, and other self- 
propelleti outdoor enthusiasts create 
unique needs for recreation facilities. 

.\ 15.3-mile bike path, pedestrian 
walkway, horseback trail, and nature 
way was designed with consider- 
ation for hi.storic, scientific, and eco- 
nomic factors; a feasibility study, 
made possible by a small Arts 
Endowment grant, recommended 
procedures for acquiring land from 
the Milwaukee Railroad and for its 
most productive development. 

Grantee: 

The City of Bozeman, City-County 

Planning Office 

Planning Director: 

Paul J. Bolton 

Project Director: 

Dave Fackler 



Participants: 

Bob Holje, assistant planner; Jim 
Yeaglev, research and history-; Cort- 
land Freeman, editing and rewriting; 
Yolonda McCready, secretary; 
Thomas P. Eggensperger and Roger 
P. Sandiland, resource inventory; 
John M. Bashor and Peters Kom- 
mers, design and presentation; 
Ira L. Swett 

/ 

Old railroad bridge over Bozeman Creek. 

Photograph by Bozeman City-County 

Planning Staff. 

2 

Proposed conversion to a bike way. 

Drawing by Kommers, McLaughlin <^ 

Leavengood. 



It takes a dedicated eve and no small 
pow er of \ ision to look at the Bronx 
River and imagine a tow path, bicv- 
clists, a nature w alk, fishing — even 
an arts center. But that's the kind of 
hope that the Bronx River restora- 
tion project conjures up for the com- 
munities along the river. 

The historic twenty-mile waterw ay 
that winds from Westchester to the 
Flast River is the focus of a master 
plan to develop the area into a green- 
belt recreation park. The plan coor- 
dinates diverse development oppor- 
tunities along the river, seeking 
to upgrade w ater and land quality 
and utilize unemployed youths and 
adults from the communities in 
design, construction, and mainte- 
nance. I he project's tlirectors are 
planning economic, cultural, recrea- 
tional, and educational activities that 
can serve as a vehicle for community 
organization. 

(Jrantee: 

Bronx River Restoration 

Executive Directors: 

Ruth .\denberg and .\xel Horn 



Project Director: 
.\xel Horn 
Participants: 

(Staff) Ruth Anderberg, community 
relations; Michael Diaz, coordinator, 
field projects; How ard Irw in, past 
president. New York Botanical Ciar- 
den, horticultural consultant; Lisa 
Neil, administrative assistant; Stein 
Partnership, consulting architects; 
Norma Torres, coordinator, river 
festivals; Betty Wilde, coordinator, 
environmental arts center; Nev\ 
York State Office of Parks and Rec- 
reation; Westchester County Chief 
Executive's Office; Westchester 
County Parks and Recreation 
Department; Westchester County 
Department of Planning; Bronx Bor- 
ough President's Office; New York 
City Parks and Recreation Depart- 
ment; New York City Planning 
Commission 

1 

A riverside being constructed on the 
Bronx River at West Farms. Workers 
are members of New York's Young Adult 
Conservation Corps. Photograph by 
Bronx River Restoration. 



146 



A Waterfront Park for Grand Street 



Spring Point Shoreway, Maine 



An abandoned %-acre lot on the 
Brooklyn hank of New York's East 
River, filled with garbage and rust- 
ing cars, in 1978 became the Grand 
Street Waterfront Park. The meta- 
morphosis was worked by residents 
of the Williamsburg community, 
organized by the Parks Council of 
New York City. A planning team 
from Pratt Institute determined 
community use patterns and a land- 
scape architect \\ as retained to 
design a park that would require lit- 
tle maintenance, provide quiet scenic 
views for adults and play areas for 
youngsters, offer a flexible arrange- 
ment of spaces to meet changing 
community needs, and be easy to 
build with volunteer help and teen- 
age labor. 

1 he park was intended to demon- 
strate that the necessary resources 
\\ ere available, even in low -income 
neighborhoods, to reclaim water- 
front land for public recreation. But 
the most impressive aspect of the 
project, and kev to its success, was 
the enthusiastic involvement of pub- 
lic employees and neighborhootl res- 



idents, who volunteered their time, 
energ)', and recycled materials. With 
the extensive personal commitments 
displayed as the project progressed, 
it is no wonder that the park has 
become an important force in pro- 
moting community unity and mak- 
ing a vital, lasting impact on the 
Williamsburg neighborhood. 

Grantee: 

I he Parks Council, Inc. 
Project Director: 
Norman Cohen 
Participants: 

Philip Winslow, .\SL.\, design; 
Unidad y Progreso and Habitantes 
Unidos, co-sponsors; Department of 
Sanitation; Department of Ports and 
Terminals; New York State Office 
of Parks and Recreation; Waterfront 
Park Cultural Committee of Wil- 
liamsburg, programming; (Technical 
and voluntary' assistance) Project 
Renewal, Green Guerillas, Council 
on the Environment, Pratt 
University 



Sheltered coves and beaches, a pre— 
Revolutionary War cemetery. Civil 
War-era fortifications, a nineteenth 
century lighthouse, magnificent 
views to the islands of Casco Bay. . . 

In the early 1970s, the city of South 
Portland, Maine, had the foresight 
to recognize the potential of Spring 
Point Shoreway — a one-mile stretch 
of municipal and state-o\\ ned shore- 
front. With the aid of an Endow- 
ment grant, the city commissioned a 
plan to develop a greenbelt park 
along this choice section of the 
Maine coast. To provide recreation 
and preserx e the area's cultural heri- 
tage, the plan dedicates more than 
twenty acres of land to public use in 
perpetuity, and recommends refur- 
bishing a sand beach in the urban- 
ized section of South Portland, 
improving access for the elderly and 
handicapped, restoring an historic 
fort, and adding diverse recreational 
facilities. Ihe plan has now begun to 
be implemented. 

Grantee: 

City of South Portland, Maine 



Planning Director: 
Evan Richert 
Project Director: 
Mitchell-Dew an Associates 
Participants: 

Greenbelt .Advisory Committee, 
Erank .Vlorong, Chairman; Ronald 
E. Stewart, City .Manager; Kenneth 
Curtis, former Governor of the State 
of Maine; Ladd Heldenbrand; 
Daniel Mooers, .\ttomey; Joseph 
Ziepniew.ski, planner 



147 



The Grants-Making Years: 



Inter\ievvs w ith Program Directors Lance Jav Brown 




Institutions are in large part a history 
of the individuals v\ ho have shaped 
them. Foday's Design Arts Program 
of the National Kndovvment is the 
work of many individuals: creative 
contrilnitors recognized on the pre- 
ceding pages of this publication; 
leaders in various design disciplines 
who gave their time as council mem- 
bers, panelists, and atlvisors; bureau- 
crats who brought political pragma- 
tism to the i'^ndou ment dreams; and 
perhaps the strongest molders, the 
three program directors who have 
steered Design Arts through its first 
fifteen years. 

Interviews with directors Paul 
Spreiregen (1966- 1970), Bill N. 
Lacy (1970-1977), and Michael John 
Pittas (1979- present)* provide spe- 
cial insights into the Design Arts 
Program. Their personal chronicles 
of the institution during their ten- 



*Between 1977 and 1979 the position of Direc- 
tor was vacant. During this pericxi Roy 
Knight .served as Acting Director. Mr. Knight 
is now Dean of the School of Architecture, 
University of Tennessee. 



ures go far to explain the evolution 
and current direction of this pro- 
gram, which has provided significant 
support for design in .\merica. 



Paul Spreiregen, Director 
1966- 1970 

When Paul Spreiregen joined the 
National Endow ment, the institu- 
tion itself w as less than a year old. 
"I came in the spring of 1966; it w as 
really brand new — fresh," he remem- 
bers. "It was a much smaller organi- 
zation, totally open and un-bureau- 
cratized. The only problem was that 
there wasn't any money." 

Lack of funds did influence the 
early direction of the program, then 
known as .Architecture, Planning 
and Design. While Spreiregen recog- 
nized a broader definition of design 
as "anything you could see. . .envi- 
ronmental design, industrial design, 
architecture, planning, civil engi- 
neering, landscape architecture, cos- 
tume and stage design," he admitted 
that to have operated on that defini- 
tion "would really have spread [the 
program] tcx) thin, and we barely 
had enough money." The result — a 
testimony to architecture's pf)sition 
as "mother of the design arts" — was 
a program that focused on support 
for architects, planners, and land- 
scape architects. "Landscape archi- 
tecture," Spreiregen asserts, "was 



then reviving some of its best tradi- 
tions, like sound ecologically based 
planning on a regional scale." 

Spreiregen's vision of the program 
was "to help set up a system for 
entertaining ideas that w ould other- 
w ise be ignored, and to help com- 
munities to see that they possessed 
a great amount of talent that they 
could make use of and that they 
should not w aste. 

"I think the w hole point is not to pre- 
scribe [design] but to make it possi- 
ble for people to try new things and 
for communities to see how much 
they have available to them. I still 
think that's the w ay the grants pro- 
gram should work." 

Spreiregen credits his program w ith 
giving a critically needed structure 
to the grants-making prcKess. "I he 
thing I tried to institute was the idea 
of how you give grants — a structured 
w ay of considering all ideas — that 
w as both manageable and fair." 



148 




From the early grant awards made, 
Spreiregen calls out some with par- 
ticular pride: "We gave a grant to a 
group of professionals and Univer- 
sity of Illinois students to study an 
area in South Chicago and northern 
Indiana, the Little Calumet River 
Basin, which is the heartland of the 
steel industry. Ihev made a regional 
plan for how the whole despoiled, 
industrialized landscape could be 
restored. It's a superb thing, a land- 
mark plan." 

Praising another grant project, a 
regional land plan for the locks 
Island area of the Delaware River, 
Spreiregen elaborates, "You know , 
river basins are really the most basic 
planning entity. Both of these 
studies were wonderful examples of 
how you could remake America— 
potentially the most constructive 
projects we did." 

Perhaps the most personallv satisfy- 
ing initiative Spreiregen took w as 
a grant to support student travel. 
Recalling his own experience in 
architecture school: "I thought, if 



you could just travel when you have 
so many questions in your head, 

w hen your eyes arc so open " The 

program funded students trom archi- 
tectural and planning schools who 
spent the summer before their final 
year traveling in the United States, 
exploring a specific region, architec- 
tural style, or related study area. 

Spreiregen's experience as director 
was not w ithout its disappoint- 
ments. Ihe architecture program, 
the youngest at the newly created 
Endowment, was by his own admis- 
sion the "odd man out." He recalls 
the extreme jealousy among the 
programs (\ isual Arts, Dance, 
Literature, et al.) and how the other 
program directors were "openly 
disdainful of even having an archi- 
tecture program in the Arts P'ndow- 
ment. "You know , architects: they're 
all rich; what do they need help for?" 

Although his structure for aw arding 
grants w as w ell conceived and he ini- 
tiated the use of panels on a small, 
experimental scale, Spreiregen notes 
that it was Bill Lacy, his successor. 



who actually implemented the panel 
system of outside judges as an ongo- 
ing process. Spreiregen's own tenure 
was a time dominated by personali- 
ties, when an elite core — the 
National Council of the Arts mem- 
bers representing design — func- 
tioned not only as policy makers but 
also as quasi-administrators and 
judges in the process of .selecting 
grants. 

Despite the grow ing pains experi- 
enced at the program during his 
years there, Paul Spreiregen was 
able to leave a solid legacy in policy 
and administration to his successors. 
In a frank self-portrait, he character- 
izes himself as a somewhat reluctant 
bureaucrat; yet his personal enthu- 
siasm for the design arts and his 
desire "not to prescribe directions for 
design but to make things possible" 
have remained hallmarks of the pro- 
gram he led in its formative years. 



Bill N. Lacy, Director 
1970-1977' 

In 1970, a year after Paul 
Spreiregen's departure. Bill Lacy 
w as recruited by Endow ment Chair- 
man Nancy Hanks to head the 
Architecture, Planning and Design 
Program. "She came to Dallas where 
I w as working for a large architec- 
tural firm. . .and she persuaded me 
that my future lay in \\ ashington. I 
took the job." 

As an administrator. Lacy w as 
enthusiastic. I le w as supported 
strongly by Hanks (the program's 
funding doubled every year during 
his term) and by the design arts 
members of the National Council of 
the Arts. "Fortunately we alw ays 
had spokesmen like Charles Fames 
to explain very patiently [to the 
Council] w hy thcv should be inter- 
ested in esoteric studies of symme- 
trv." An adept people mo\er. Lacy 
w as a catalyst for a variety of new 
program efforts and made the 
bureaucratic structure w ork for him 
and the program. 

The continuing challenge w as, he 
stresses, "to use the limited monies 



149 



The Grants-Making Years: 



Interviews u ith Program Directors 



that we had available most effec- 
tively. 1 once did a rough calculation 
of the amount of construction in the 
country and the amount of money 
we had available to us, and figured 
out that wc had a choice — we could 
walk onto every building site and 
give the construction foreman a $5 
bill and say 'make it better' — or we 
coukl come up v\ith a more rational 
approach for spreading our meager 
funds around." 

The "more rational approach" 
evolved naturally, according to 
Lacy, from the early requests the 
program received for grants. "By 
virtue of the kinds of requests we 
received, we began to be more inter- 
ested in historic preservation and 
renovation, rehabilitation, recycling 
grants, facilities for the arts, cities, 
and their problems. And we devel- 
oped theme programs." Eventually 
these themes became formal grant 
categories: City Kdges, City Options, 
City Scale, Livable Cities, Cultural 
Facilities, and American Architec- 
tural Heritage. 



Under Lacy, and a staff to whom 
he gives much credit, the Program 
stretched funds creatively. "It was 
the first time the Endowment had 
become involved in municipal city 
planning grants. . .engaging in grants 
making with city departments." 
Specific initiatives were conceived to 
support projects "so large that no 
grantee would or could be expected 
to come in and ask for a grant to do 
them." From these initiatives came 
the design for the adaptive reuse of 
the Old Post Office on Pennsylvania 
Avenue and several projects support- 
ing design for the handicapped. "We 
made three national television spots 
just on accessibility for the handi- 
capped, with a strong architectural 
orientation." 

Over the period of Lacy's term, the 
grants-making process was refined. 
"Our Council members, Charles 
Fames, Lawrence Halprin, and 
O'Neill Ford, once directly in- 
volved, gradually remoxed them- 
selves [from the grants selection 
process] and we opted for a national 
network of panelists. We had several 



hundred consultants on our rolls and 
assembled them in various combina- 
tions to review applications, depend- 
ing upon the nature of a particular 
group of grants." 

In addition to straightforw ard grants 
making, Lacy's program also made 
the decision to "w akc the sleeping 
bureaucratic giant, the federal gov- 
ernment, and try to improve the 
quality of federal design. We recog- 
nized that the federal client w as the 
largest and most influential in the 
countr\- and that if w c could have 
some influence on how the federal 
government spent its design dollars, 
we would have realized a real coup." 

Endowment legislation allowed 
Lacy's program to spend money on 
its own initiative and his federal 
Design Improvement Project even- 
tuallv began to impnn e federal 
graphics, to re\ ise and improve the 
hiring procedures for designers in 
public service, and to hold national 
design assemblies for federal 
cmplovees. Lacv points particularlv 
to The Federal Presence, an Endow- 



ment book published by MIT Press, 
as a volume that "will stand for a 
long time as a definitive work on 
federal architecture." 

Ihe federal design initiative is one of 
several personally rew arding accom- 
plishments that Lacy recalls from 
his days at the Endow ment. He also 
credits the program for "aw akening 
the nation to the value of older build- 
ings to communities. It's hard to 
imagine now that there was a time 
when people w ere not attuned to 
that realization, but believe me, we 
had a life and death struggle over 
ever\' small Iniilding w hen we first 
got into the fray. I he major work on 
reusing old railroad stations attests to 
the program's success in that preser- 
vation battle." 

.\wareness is a key word to Bill 
Lacv. Almost half of the program 
grants during his term w ere for, in 
his words, "public awareness — for 
films, exhibitions, conferences to 
make the public aw are of design and 
its importance in their lives." He 
w orked at "getting the w ord out" 



150 




and enjoys the knowledge that any- 
one looking for support for design 
activities now "thinks of the Arts 
Endowment first." 

Summarizing his view of the 
Endowment's unique achievement, 
and that of the Design Arts Pro- 
gram, Lacy concludes: "1 he Endow- 
ment has always been willing to take 
risks. It was and is an organization 
where the struggling designer or the 
professional \\ ho needed some 'think 
time' still had a person to talk to, 
usually someone who was sympa- 
thetic and \\ anted ver\- much to 
help. Program administrators and 
staff are always on the grantee's side, 
rather than the government's side — 
and that makes a big difference." 



Michael John Pittas, Director 
1979- Present 

"The design arts are in some respects 
the least artistic of the arts and the 
least scientific of the sciences. In 
that sense we are always considered 
somewhat of a curiosity within the 
Endowment." 

Today Director Michael Pittas's per- 
ception of the position of the Design 
Arts Program bears a startling 
resemblance to Paul Spreiregen's 
earlier comments about the "odd 
man out" at the National Endow- 
ment. Yet Pittas inherited a very dif- 
ferent, recognized, and mature insti- 
tution from his predecessors. Many 
aspects of the program — from policy 
guidelines to grant-making mecha- 
nisms — were well established when 
Pittas arrived in 1979. "The basic 
thing we w anted tt) do w as to rein- 
vigorate the program." 

Reinvigorating meant first a name 
change, which had more than super- 
ficial significance for the program. 
Explaining the change from .Archi- 
tecture, Planning and Design Pro- 
gram to the new, more inclusive 
Design .\rts Program, Pittas notes 



that "we've made a ver\' large effort 
to encourage the involvement of all 
the design fields." With expanded 
funds, the program has now realized 
the ecumenical goal advocated by 
both Spreiregen and Lacy; seven 
design fields now supported by the 
program include architecture, land- 
scape architecture, planning and 
urban design, interior design, indus- 
trial design, graphic design, and 
fashion design. 

Supported by the Program's first 
formal policy panel. Pittas has rede- 
fined the grant categories under 
generic headings. "The program has 
been experimenting, touching on 
many subjects in a topical or the- 
matic fashion. In doing so, issues of 
great importance surfaced — historic 
preser\ation, the conservation and 
restoration of central business dis- 
tricts, and neighborhood planning, 
for example. We simply generalized 
on these past program directions and 
came up w ith three generic catego- 
ries for grants: design theor\', prac- 
tice, and communication. 



"By avoiding a focused thematic 
approach, we hope to make the Pro- 
gram open to more truly innovative 
ideas from the fields. For instance, 
we moved aw ay from theme pro- 
grams directed at city activities — 
such as Livable Cities or City Edges 
or City Options — because we w anted 
to include issues that affect small 
town and rural America as well." 

Grant application guidelines have 
been revised and applications have 
increased dramatically. Pittas is 
encouraged by "the extent to which 
people have been able to respond to 
the new policies." He has also incor- 
porated provisions in the grant 
guidelines to support design compe- 
titions, w hich had earlier been a 
favored concern of Paul Spreiregen. 
"The idea is to open up the designer 
selection process so that younger 
and smaller firms can participate," 
explains Pittas. "The process of 
design competitions can raise public 
aw areness about design as a process 
as well as about the final product. 



151 



The Grants-Making \'cars: 



Interviews with Program Directors 



"The magic in the granting process 
that makes it so attractive to us and 
to me in particular has been that, not 
only are the products of design, the 
artifacts created, wonderful things, 
but the process by which they are 
achieved is democratic, highly par- 
ticipatory, and speaks well for the 
profession of design and how it can 
be of service to society." A further 
testimony to Pittas's democratic con- 
cept of grant making is the expansion 
of the panelist system for reviewing 
grant applications, which now 
includes nearly one thousand poten- 
tial panelists. Close attention is paid 
to the composition of the panels in 
terms of professional expertise, 
minority status, and geographic 
representation. 

.'\s Spreiregcn advocated raising the 
public's awareness of design through 
competitions. Bill Lacy dreamed of 
creating a television series on the 
design arts in America. Pittas's pro- 
gram is following through on that 
dream, working with a sister pro- 
gram in the Endowment, Metlia 
Arts, to develop a television .series on 



design in the built and natural envi- 
ronment that \\ ill touch on historical 
trends in .\merican design and raise 
current issues for discussion. 

Pittas's ov\ n initiatives are indicative 
of a mind v\ ell attuned to political 
realities and the potential strength in 
bureaucratic numbers. For example, 
he sees the potential for coordinating 
the design research activities now 
undertaken autonomously by the 
various federal agencies: "We have 
brought together the environmental 
design research interests within the 
government — the National Science 
Foundation, National Bureau of 
Standards, Department of Housing 
and Urban Development, Depart- 
ment of Transportation, National 
Institute of Mental Health, and 
many other agencies that are both 
users of and doers of research on 
design issues — to discuss common 
concerns and start developing an 
agenda for future actions. We've 
been able to develop a position paper 
on the issue of environmental design 
research, \\ hich has been a very 
vague area until now." 



Within the FLndowment, Design 
Arts has encouraged applications 
from the other arts constituencies "to 
meet the very real need to house the 
arts." Pittas notes there are now ten 
times as manv dance companies, 
four times as manv resident theater 
companies, t\\ ice as manv opera 
companies in this countrv as there 
were in 1965, all principallv due to 
the Endowment. "Lntil now , w hat 
we have not done w ell as an institu- 
tion is to house those arts — in the- 
aters, museums, artists' work places. 

"(Civilizations are judged bv their 
cultural artifacts — most particularly 
their architecture. Over the past 
hundred years, this countr\' has 
spent enormous resources erecting 
cathedrals to commercial interests. 
We believe that an equal it not 
greater amount of creative energy 
should be directed at the design of 
our cultural monuments." 

.Michael Pittas w ages a continuing 
personal and professional crusade 
for excellence in design. His new Iv 
formcxl Design Excellence Project is 



a multi-faceted initiative to sharpen 
public aw areness and promote out- 
standing design. It includes a grant 
recognition program— the first com- 
prehensive review of the products of 
grantees over the past fifteen vears 
and publication of the best of 
the grants. 

It includes, as w ell, an Executive 
Order on Design Excellence. "If a 
future imperative of this program is 
to pr(Kiuce design excellence w ithin 
the federal government, it has to be 
achieved through a strong institu- 
tional policv, one that is o\ert, artic- 
ulate." Ihe Executive Order pro- 
duced in collaboration with the 
Federal Oaincil on the Arts and 
Humanities anil other federal agen- 
cies, directs all the President's agen- 
cies, the largest producers of design 
and procurors of design services in 
the nation, to improve their ow n 
processes and products of design and 
to report annuallv to the President 
on the state of design w ithin 
the agency. 



152 



In many ways the Design Excellence 
Project continues efforts begun by 
Bill Lacy to increase public aware- 
ness and improve the quality of 
design in the federal government. 
Pittas's own philosophy reinforces 
the concept: "If one wants to effect 
change in this society at this time, 
the public sector is the place to do it. 
It's the largest single client of design 
services and directly or indirectly 
controls the quality of our environ- 
ment in an extraordinary way. Thus 
small changes initiated by a small 
institution of government like 
the Arts Endowment can induce 
enormous changes throughout the 
country." 



153 



Reference: Listing of Grantees 



American Academy in Rome 

41 F".ast65th Street 

New York, NY 10021 

212/535-4250 

Ruth D. (irecn 

Mid-(>arcer Fellowships, p. 50 

American Institute of Architects 

Foundation 

1799 New York Avenue, N.VV. 

Washington, D.C. 20006 

202/638-3221 

Jeanne Butler Hodges 

Richard Morris Hunt, p. 27 

American Institute of Architects 

Foundation 

Philadelphia Office 

333 S. 16th Street 

Philadelphia, PA 19102 

215/735-7400 

Steven Izcnour 

Learning from Las Vegas, p. 26 

America the Beautiful Fund 

219 Shoreham Building 

15th and H Streets, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20005 

202/638-1649 

Paul Bruce Dowling 

Seed Grants, p. 37 

Suburban Conservation, p. 138 

Architectural League of New York 

41 East 65th Street 

New York, NY 10021 

212/753-1722 

Marita O'Hare 

Women in American Architecture, 

p. 30 

Iwo Hundred Years of American 

Architectural Drawing, p. 28 

Association of Collegiate Schools of 

Architecture, Inc. 

1735 New York Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20006 

202/785-2324 

Roger Schluntz 

Journal of Architectural PMucation, 

p. 100 

P^nvironmental Experience Stipends, 

p. 56 

Atlanta Great Park Planning, Inc. 

P.O. Box 5452 

Atlanta, GA 30307 

404/524-6441 

Quinn Hudson 

Atlanta Great Park, p. 142 



Bally, Alexander 

219 Park Road 

Carnegie, PA 15106 

412/726-5454 

A Communication System for the 

Blind, p. 107 

Bass, Robinson Neil & .Associates 

170 Second Avenue, North 

Nashville, FN 37201 

615/256-6115 

Robinson Neil Bass 

Recycling Nashville's Waterfront, 

p. 123 

Billington, David P. 

23 University Place 

Princeton, NJ 08540 

609/921-7088 

The Art of Engineering, p. 98 

Boston Redevelopment Authority 

Boston City Hall 

Boston, .VI A 02 201 

617/722-4300 

Jasenka Diminic 

Boston's Urban Wilds, p. 140 

Boston 200 

Mayor's Office 

Boston City Hall 

Boston, MA 02201 

617/725-4400 

Katherine D. Kane 

Boston 200 Discovery Network, 

p. 41 

Boutelle, Sara Holmes 

130Getchell Street 

Santa Cruz, CA 95000 

408/427-0708 

I he Work of Julia Morgan, p. 32 

Bowsher, Alice Meriwether 

5 Norman Drive 

Birmingham, .\L 35213 

205/254-2495 

Design Review in Historic Districts, 

p. 126 

Bozeman, City of 

City-County Planning Office, 

Box 640 

Bozeman, MT 59715 

406/586-3321, X 54 

Paul J. Bolton 

The Gallagator Linear Park, p. 146 

Branch, Melville C. 

1505 Sorrento Drive 

Pacific Palisades, CA 90272 

213/472-1924 

Comparative Urban Design, 

1830-1843, p. 94 



Brolin, Brent C. 

25 Washington Square North 

New York, NY 10011 

212/674-3386 

Fitting New Buildings u ith Old, 

p. 99 

Bronx River Restoration 

375 East Fordham Road 

Bronx, NY 10458 

212/933-4079 

Axel Horn 

A Park Along the Bronx River, 

p. 146 

California/Berkeley, University of 
Department of Architecture 
Wurster Hall 
Berkeley, CA 94720 
415/642-4942 
Daniel Solomon 
Residential Zoning for San 
Francisco, p. 138 

Cambridge Arts Council 

57 Inman Street 
Cambridge, .\1 A 02139 
617/498-9033 
Pamela Worden 

Art in Cambridge Parks, p. 80 

Carnegie-Mellon University 
Department of Design 
Schenley Park 
Pittsburgh, PA 15213 
412/578-^2822 
Joseph .M. Ballay 
Environments for the Mentally 
Retarded, p. 107 

Center for City Building 

Educational Programs 

235 South Westgate Avenue 

Los Angeles, CA 90049 

213/828-1895 

Doreen Nelson 

A Building Education System, p. 54 

Center for Design Planning 

3695 St. Gaudens Road 

Coconut Grove, EL 33133 

305/448-8422 

Harold Leu is .Malt 

Streetscape Equipment Sourcebook, 

p. 109 

Children's .Museum of Rhode Island, 
Inc. 

58 Walcott Street 
Pau tucket, RI 02860 
404/726-2590 
Kathleen Dwyer 

.\ Children's .Museum, p. 63 



Cincinnati Institute 

405 Palace Theater Building 
Cincinnati, OH 45202 
513/621-4534 
E. Pope Coleman 
Cincinnati Hillsides, p. 137 

Cleveland Landmarks Commission 
Cleveland City Hall, Room 28 
601 Lakeside Avenue 
Cleveland, OH 44114 
216/664-2531 
John D. Cimperman 
Improving a U'arehouse District, 
p. 125 

Committee for a National .Museum 

of the Building Arts 

440 G Street, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20001 

202/783-0690 

Cynthia R. Field 

A National .Museum of the Building 

.\rts, p. 64 

Cranbrook .Academy of .Art 

500 Lone Pine Road 

Box 801 

BloomfieldHills,.Ml48013 

313/645-3316 

Jack W illiamson 

Design .Michigan, p. 40 

Cutler, Laurence S., and Sherrie S. 

Cutler 

180 Franklin Street 

Cambridge, .\1\ 02 139 

617/868-2920 

System Ecologic, p. 112 

Dayton, City of 

101 West Third Street 

Dayton, OH 45401 

51.3/225-5428 

Paul Wick 

.\n .\rt Center for Dayton, p. 69 

District of (Columbia Office of 
Planning and Development 
1420 New York .\ venue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20004 
202/727-6502 
John Fondersmith 
20th Century Fransportation and 
Civic Design for an 18th Century 
City, p. 73 

Easter Seal Society 
37 Harvard Street 
Worcester, .MA 01608 
617/757-2756 
Richard .\. LaPierre 
.Access '76, p. 106 



154 



Eastport, City of 

58 High Street 

Eastport, M E 046 3 1 

207/853-4648 

William E. George 

Waterfront Plan for Eastport, Maine, 

p. 86 

Educational Facilities Laboratories/ 

Academy for Educational 

Development 

680 Fifth Avenue 

New York, NY 10019 

212/397-0025 

Alan C. Green 

Reusing Railroad Stations, p. 44 

Educational Futures, Inc. 
2118 Spruce Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19103 
215/735-2118 
Aase Eriksen 

Architects-in-Schools, p. 55 
Participatory Design, p. 55 

Environmental Education, Inc./ 

Tampa Community Design Center, 

Inc. 

304 Plant Avenue 

Tampa, FL 33606 

318/251-6167 

Stacy Frank, Amy Aspell 

A Movable Park, p. 79 

Environmental Intern 
Program/N ortheast 
Massachusetts .\udubon Society 
Lincoln, MA 01773 
617/259-9500 
Susan W. Hunnewell 
Environmental Community 
Problems, p. 56 

Eugene, City of 
Department of Housing and 
Community Conservation 
777 Pearl Street, Room 106 
Eugene, OR 97401 
503/687-5443 
Linda Dawson 
Housemoving, p, 124 

Femandina Beach, City of 

P.O. Box 668 

Femandina Beach, FL 32034 

904/261-6171 

Grady Courtney 

Centre Street Restoration, p. 85 



Florence, Town of 

P.O. Box 490 

Florence, AZ 85232 

602/868-5889 

Jean Claypool 

Florence, Arizona's Historic 

District, p. 126 

Foundation for San Francisco's 

.Architectural Heritage 

2007 Franklin Street 

San Francisco, C.\ 94109 

415/441-3000 

Robert Bemer (415/441-1400) 

Splendid Survivors, p. 118 

Fund for Preservation of Wildlife 

and Natural .\reas 

(Boston Natural Areas Fund 

Account) 

% Boston Safe Deposit & Trust Co. 

One Boston Place 

Boston, MA 02 108 

617/227-3285 

John Blackwell 

Boston's Urban Wilds, p. 140 

Galveston County Cultural .\rts 

Council, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1105 

Galveston, TX 77553 

713/763-6459 

Emily Whiteside 

The Strand in Galveston, Texas, 

p. 120 

Galveston Historical Foundation, 

Inc. 

P.O. Box 539 

Galveston, TX 77553 

713/765-7834 

Peter H. Brink 

The Strand in Galveston, Texas, 

p. 120 

George Washington University 

Department of Urban and Regional 

Planning 

School of Government and Business 

Administration 

Washington, D.C. 20052 

202/676-7475 

Dom C. McGrath, Jr. 

Suburban Conservation, p. 138 

Goodman Group, Inc. 

1117 Geary Street 

San Francisco, CA 94109 

415/788-2644 

Cathy Simon 

Artists' Housing in San Francisco, 

p. 62 



Grabow , Stephen, and Neil Salkind 

University of Kansas 

Lawrence, K.\ 66045 

913/864-3609 

Hidden Structure of Children's 

Play, p. 104 

Grand Rapids Art Museum 

230 East Fulton 

Grand Rapids, MI 49503 

616/459-4676 

Elizabeth Crouch 

West Michigan's Landmark for .\rt, 

p. 66 

Hagan, Roger 

1019 Belmont PI. East 

Seattle, WA 98102 

206/324-5034 

Reusing Railroad Stations, p. 44 

Haney, Joyce 

1274 Kay Drive 

Cherry Hill, NJ 08034 

609/795-1388 

Preserving the New Jersey Pine 

Barrens, p. 142 

Harlem Institute of Fashion 
157 W. 126th Street 
New York, NY 10027 
212/666-1320; 666-9474 
Lois K. .\lexander 
Harlem Institute of Fashion's 
Museum, p. 64 

Harvard University 

Career Discovery Program 

Harvard Graduate School of Design 

Special Programs 

GundHaIlL-37 

Cambridge, MA 02138 

617/495-2578 

Carol Kort 

Career Discovery Program, p. 51 

Hudson/.Mohawk Industrial 

Gateway 

5 Broadway 

Troy, NY 12180 

518/274-5267 

Thomas P. McGuire 

An Historic Industrial Park, p. 144 

Huff, William S. 

273 Woodbridge .\venue 

Buffalo, NY 14214 

716/834-4419 

Symmetry, p. 103 



Human Services Corporation 

200 Merrimac Street 

Lowell, .MA 01852 

617/454-0460 

Karen Carpenter 

A Cultural Center at Boott Mill, 

p. 70 

Indiana Repertory Theatre 
411 East -Michigan Street 
Indianapolis, IN 46204 
317/635-5277 
Benjamin .Mordecai 
Renovating a .Movie House, p. 61 

Inglewood, City of 

One .Manchester Boulevard 

Inglewood, CA 90301 

213/649-7230 

John Keaney 

North Inglewood Industrial Park, 

p. 139 

Institute for Environmental Action 

81 Leonard Street 

New York, NY 10013 

212/966-6390 

Gianni Longo 

Footnotes, p. 42 

More Streets for People, p. 42 

Jackson, Lois G. 

241 Tenth Street, S.E. 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

202/544-2382 

The Right to Walk, p. 110 

Jacksonville University 

University Boulevard, North 

Jacksonville, FL 32211 

904/744-3950 

William Morgan (904/356-4195) 

Prehistoric and Early .Architecture 

in the Eastern United States, p. 95 

Jacobs, Herbert A. 

1001 Euclid .Avenue 

Berkeley, CA 94708 

415/524-3684 

Building with Frank Lloyd Wright, 

p. 96 

Jersey City, City of 

X'illage Italian .Americans Take 

.Action 

P.O. Box 342 

Jersey City, NJ 07302 

201/795-0638 

Tony Nicodemo 

Risorgimento, p. 48 



155 



Reference: Listing of Grantees 



Kachik, James R. 
123A Willow Avenue 
Fairfax, CA 94930 
415/435-3803 
Headspace, p. 106 

Kaiser, Harvey H. 

304 Brookford Road 

Syracuse, NY 13224 

315/446-5865 

The Great Camps of the 

Adirondacks, p. 33 

Keig, Susan Jackson 

860 Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, I L 60611 

312/266-0329 

Shaker Heritage in Kentucky, p- 34 

Kennedy, James S. 

Two Mile Road 

Ltna,NH 03750 

603/643-6446 

Plants as Environmental Indicators, 

p. 113 

Knowles, Ralph L. 

School of Architecture 

University of Southern California 

Los Angeles, CA 90007 

Energy, Stability, and Form, p. 102 

Koncelik, Joseph A. 

1638 Dollivor Drive 

Worthington, OH 43085 

614/846-4753 

Jane Davidson, Burt Kubli 

Building Products for the Aged, 

p. 107 

Langcnhach, Randolph 

24 Cambridge Terrace 

Cambridge, i\l A 02140 

617/492-6823 

The Milltown: A Sense of Place, a 

Way of Life, p. 34 

Lewiston, City of 

City Hall 

Lewiston, MK 04240 

207/784-2951 

Gore Flynn 

Building Book for Lewiston, Maine, 

p. 36 

Liskamm, William H. 

P.O. Box 2604 

San Francisco, CA 94901 

415/453-1127 

Scenic Preservation, p. 132 



Ix)uisville, City of 

Community Development Cabinet 

727 West .\iain Street 

I^ouisvillc, KV 40202 

502/587-3151- 

Shyamu Shastri 

.\lleys: A Hidden Resource, p. 78 

Maine Department of Conservation, 

Land Use Regulation Commission 

State House Station #22 

Augusta, ME 04333 

207/289-2212 

Richard Barringer 

Maine's Land Use Handbook, p. 134 

Manitou Springs, City of 

606 Manitou Avenue 

Manitou Springs, CO 80829 

303/685-5481 

Hugh J. King, Jr. 

Redesigning Manitou Springs, p. 83 

Maryland Arts Council 

15 W. Mulberry Street 

Baltimore, MD 21201 

301/685-6740 

1% for Art in Civic Architecture, 

p. 80 

Matuszeski, William, and Mary 

Procter 

413 Fifth Street, S.E. 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

202/634-1672 

Gritty Cities, p. 72 

McHenry , Paul G. , Jr. 

Box 706 

Corrales, NM 87048 

505/898-6223 

Shelter in the Harsh Land, p. 112 

Minneapolis Arts Commission 

302 City Hall 

Minneapolis, MN 55415 

612/348-5486 

Melisande Charles 

Artist Living/Working Space, p. 70 

Municipal Art Society of New York 
The Urban Center 
457 Madison Avenue 
NewYork, NY 10022 
212/935-3960 
Margot Wellington 
Visible Streets, p. 74 
Adopt- A-Station, p. 76 



National Recreation and Park 
Association 

1601 N. Kent Street 
Arlington, \A 22209 
William FL Whyte 

The Street Life Project, Room 5510 

30 Rockefeller Plaza 

New York, NY 10020 

212/247-3700 

Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, 

p. 43 

National Frust for Historic 

Preser\ation 

1785 .Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 

202/673-4000 

Henr\' .\. .McCartney 

Neighborhood Conservation 

Nationwide, p. 48 

Russell \ . Keune 

Defining F^ges of Historic Districts, 

p. 127 

John Frisbee 

Preser\ation Planning in Small 

Town Historic Districts, p. 128 

National Trust for Historic 

Preservation 

Midwest Office 

407 S. Dearborn, #710 

Chicago, I L 60605 

312/353-3419 

Mary C. Means 

Main Street, p. 38 

Courthouse Conservation, p. 45 

Nebraska, University of 

College of .Architecture 

10th and R Streets 

Lincoln, NB 68588 

402/472-3592 

Thomas Laging, Cecil Steward 

Nebraska Capitol and Environs, 

p. 131 

New Mexico, University of 

Institute for Environmental 

Education 

School of .Krchitecture and Planning 

2414 Central Avenue, S.E. 

Albuquerque, N.M 87131 

505/277-5058 

.\nne Taylor 

.\n Institute for Environmental 

Education, p. 51 



New York Department of City 

Planning 

2 Lafayette Street, Room 2300 

New York, NY 10007 

212/566-2455 

Edward L. Cohen (212/966-6692) 

Revitalizing Communities in New 

York, p. 82 

New York Landmarks Conser\ ancv 

17 Batterv Place 

New York, NY 10004 

212/425-4085 

Susan Henshaw Jones 

U.S. Custom House at Bowling 

Green, p. 130 

Ogden Neighborhood Development 

.\gency 

252 25th Street 

Ogden, UT 84401 

801/399-8242 

Colette Penne 

.\ Tum-of-the-Centur)' .Main Street, 

p. 122 

Old Town Restorations, Inc. 

158 Farrington Street 

St. Paul, .MN 55102 

612/224-3857 

Christopher Owens 

.\ Search for Identity, p. 119 

Pacileo, Dolores M. 

P.O. Box 26 

Manhasset, Long Island, NY 11030 

212/264-4370x1 

Soft Indoor Play Environments, 

p. 104 

Parks Council, Inc. 

80 Central Park West 

NewYork, NY 10023 

212/799-6000 

Norman Cohen 

Waterfront Park for Grand Street, 

p. 147 

Paterson, City of 

Department of Community 

Development 

100 Hamilton Plaza 

Paterson, NJ 07505 

201/881-3800 

Jack R. Stokvis 

Great Falls Historic District, p. 130 

Pearce, Peter 

3838 Carpenter .Avenue 

Studio City, CA 91604 

213/882-8500 

Structure in Nature Is a Strategy for 

Design, p. 101 



156 



Piedmont Environmental Council 

28-C Main Street 

Warrenton,VA 22186 

703/347-2334 

James H. M. Marshall 

Conserving the X'irginia Piedmont, 

p. 135 

Philadelphia, City of 

City Hall Annex 

Philadelphia, PA 19107 

215/686-3486 

George Dudzek 

Billboards as Roadw ay Art, p. 76 

Pittsburgh Architects Workshop 
237 Oakland Avenue 
Pittsburgh, PA 15213 
412/682-6360 
Stanley J. Kabala 
Access to Play, p. 105 

Platte River Greenway Foundation 

1421 Court Place 

Denver, CO 80202 

303/623-2252 

Robert M. Seams 

A Graphics System for Greenway, 

p. 41 

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 

875 Avenue of the Americas, 

Room 201 

New York, NY 10001 

212/564-2906 

Stephen Davies 

Improving New York's Restaurant 

Row, p. 82 

Kathleen A. Madden 

Film in User Analysis, p. 109 

Provincetown Playhouse on the 

Wharf, Inc. 

P.O. Box 477 

Provincetown, MA 02657 

617/487-0955 

Adele Heller 

Design Charrette for Provincetown, 

p. 60 

Railroad and Pioneer Museum, Inc. 

710 Jack Baskin Street 

P.O. Box 5126 

Temple, TX 76501 

817/778-6873; 773-4210 

Mrs. Richard D. Haines 

A Museum Evolves, p. 71 



Regional Conference of Historical 

.\gencies 

317 East Seneca Street 

Manlius, NY 13104 

315/682-7088 

.\lice Hemenway 

Preservation Planning in Upstate 

and Central New York, p. 128 

Renfro, Nancy 

1117 W. 9th Street 

Austin, TX 78703 

512/472-2140 

Kids-Only Architecture, p. 53 

Roberts, Jack 
5900 Wilshire Boulevard 
Los Angeles, CA 90036 
213/937-7900; 937-8093 
Experimental Freeway Message 
Boards, p. 110 

Rural Communities Institute 

Western State College 

Gunnison, CO 81230 

303/943-2898 

John Cabouch 

Broken Serenity, p. 132 

San Fernando Valley Arts Council 

9055 Reseda Boulevard 

Northridge,CA 91328 

213/886-2787 

Joan New berg 

.\rts Park in Los Angeles, p. 66 

San Francisco Department of City 

Planning 

100 Larkin Street 

San Francisco, C.\ 94102 

415/558-4656 

Mark Winogrond 

Residential Zoning for San 

Francisco, p. 138 

San Francisco Planning and Urban 

Research (SPUR) 

312 Sutter Street 

San Francisco, CA 94108 

415/781-8726 

John Jacobs 

Backyard Parks, p. 140 

Savannah Landmark Rehabilitation 

Project, Inc. 

P.O. Box 8801 

Savannah, GA 31412 

912/232-6036 

Beth Lattimore Reiter 

SN.\P,p. 125 



Sculpture in the Environment 

(SITE) 

60 Greene Street 

New York, NY 10012 

212/925-0706 

Patricia C. Phillips 

On Site, p. 29 

Sherwood, Roger 

107 South Arden Blvd. 

Los .\ngeles, CA 90004 

213/741-2723 

Modem Housing Prototypes, p. 97 

Sidener, Jack 
Architecture Department 
University of Washington 
Seattle, WA 98195 
206/543-^180 
Recycling Streets, p. 45 

Smith, C. Ray 
411 East 50th Street 
New York, NY 10022 

212/371-2184 
Supermannerism, p. 96 

Smith, G. E. Kidder 

163 East 81st Street 

New York, NY 10028 

212/535-0904 

Documenting the Architecture of 

the United States, p. 94 

Snug Harbor Cultural Center, Inc. 

914 Richmond Terrace 

Staten Island, NY 10301 

212/448-2500 

Michael T. Sheehan, David Gibson 

Snug Harbor, p. 68 

Society for Industrial Archeology 

Room 5020 

Museum of History and Technology 

Smithsonian Institution 

Washington, D.C. 20560 

202/381-5294 

Chester H. Liebs (802/656-3182) 

Working Places, p. 36 

South Portland, City of 

25 Cottage Road 

South Portland, ME 04106 

207/767-3201 

Evan Richert 

Spring Point Shoreway, Maine, 

p. 147 



Southworth, Michael 

419 Boylston Street, #624 

Boston, .MA 02116 

617/267-5567 

City Information Systems for 

Children, p. 104 

Spencer .Museum of Art 

University of Kansas 

Lawrence, KA 66045 

913/864-4710 

Dolo Brooking 

Space: Inside/Outside, p. 52 

Staehli, Alfred .M. 

317 S.E. 62nd Avenue 

Portland, OR 97215 

503/325-3515 

Preserving Portland Neighborhoods, 

p. 123 

Stronghold, Inc./Sugarloaf 

Regional Trails 

Box 87 Stronghold 

Dickerson, .\1D 20753 

Gail Rothrock 

Sugarloaf Regional Trails, p. 136 

Thoresen, A. Robert 
The Thoresen Group 
40 Bridge Street 
Portsmouth, NH 03801 
603/431-4027 
.\ssessing Design Review 
Commissions, p. 113 

Trenton, City of 
Department of Planning and 
Development 
10 Capitol Street 
Trenton, NJ 08618 
609/989-3559 
Ken Russo 
Cadwalader Park, p. 145 

Urban Innovations Group 

1063 Gayle Avenue 

Los Angeles, CA 90024 

213/825^-4091 

Harvey S. Perloff 

The Contribution of the Arts to the 

Economic Life of a City, p. Ill 

Vermont, University of 
Department of Histor\^ 
Burlington, \T 05405 
802/65^6-3182 
Chester H. Liebs 
Curriculum for Historic 
Preservation, p. 52 



157 



Reference: Listing of Grantees 

Vision, The Center for 

Environmental Design and 

Education 

678 Massachusetts Avenue 

Cambridge, MA 02139 

617/491-3763 

Joyce I. Meschan 

A Measure of Change, p. 46 

Street Smart, p. 47 

Five New PLngland Towns, p. 47 

Warburg, Felix M. 

RMA Group 

594 Howard Street 

San Francisco, CA 94105 

415/543-9350 

Permits and Preservation, p. 113 

VVasserman, Louis 
P.O. Box 342 
Cambridge, MA 02138 
617/354-4268 
Theme Parks, p. 108 

West Bridgewater Historical 

Commission 

Town Hall 

North Main Street 

West Bridgewater, MA 02379 

617/583-3366 

Marjorie E. MacDonald 

Historic Waterwheel Restoration, 

p. 127 

Williams Bay, Village of 
Village Hall 

Walworth County, WI 53191 
414/245-5455 
Thomas Lothian 

.\ Lakefront Park in Williams Bay, 
p. 143 

Winston-Salem, City of 

City-County Planning Board 

P.O. Box 2511 

Winston-Salem, NC 27102 

919/727-8168 

Richard Redding 

City Scale Grant Program, p. 87 

Wisconsin/Milwaukee, 

University of 

Subcontracted to 

Park West Redevelopment Task 

Force 

2342 West North Avenue 

Milwaukee, WI 53205 

414/342-2400 

Lawrence P. Witzling 

.\n Unbuilt Freeway, p. 84 



Wood, .Marilyn, and The 

Celebrations Group 

100 Third A Venue 

New York, NY 10003 

212/477-3122 

Marilyn Wood or .Margarete Roeder 

(212/925-6098) 

Celebrations in City Places, p. 39 

Worcester Cooperation Council, Inc. 

791 .Main Street 

Worcester, .\1\ 01610 

617/791-3259 

Christie I. Baxter 

Revitalizing Crown Hill, p. 86 

Worcester Heritage Society, Inc. 

321 Main Street 

Worcester, .MA 01608 

617/754-8760 

Janet McCorison or Joyce Meschan 

(617/491-3763) 

Revitalizing Worcester, p. 49 



158 



Index 



Aalto, Alvar, 97 
Adaptive reuse, 37, 45 

of alleys, 78-79 

of factory buildings, 144-45 

of historic buildings, 61-64, 

67-69, 71, 85, 119-22, 130 

of warehouses, 70, 125 
Aesthetic 

awareness, 52-53 

design, 98 
Alleys. See Adaptive reuse 
Architectural 

barriers, 106 

design. See Design, architectural 

drawing, 27-29 

education. See Education, archi- 
tectural 

historv, 27-36, 52,63,68,72, 

94-99' 

internships, 37, 56 
Architecture, 

Art Deco, 120 

Beaux Arts, 31 , 32, 67, 68, 130 

civic, 38-39,45,63-71,73,80 

classical, 32 

commercial, 34-36, 38-39, 44-46, 

61,70,74-75,82-83,86,101,122 

early, 94-95, 112 

earth, 95 

industrial, 34-36, 48, 70-72, 98 

landscape, 40, 51, 55 

Modem, 26-27, 96 

Post-Modern, 96 

regional, 33-36, 38-39, 44-45, 48, 

49, 52, 84 

residential, 33, 34, 62-63, 70, 74, 

96-97, 101, 112 

rural, 33, 34 

and social histor\', 94-95 

and topography, 95 

urban, 34-36, 38-39, 45-48, 54, 

62-63, 73, 76, 78-79, 82-87 

Victorian, 34-35, 62-63, 68 

and women, 30-32 
Architecture in Context: Fitting Neiv 
Buildings with Old (Brolin), 99 
Art Deco. See Architecture 
.\rts 

centers, 63-71 

and the economy. 111 

education, 52-53, 63, 66, 68 

participation, 39, 60-61 

See also Performing arts 
Artists 

housing, 62-63, 70 

-in-residence program, 37 

performing places, 66, 68, 69 

working places, 62-63, 70 

Beaux Arts. See Architecture 

Bicentennial, 34-35, 41, 71, 16-11 , 

106 

Body support devices, 107 

Boutelle, SaraH., 32 



Bridges, 41,74-75,98 
Building 

design. See Design, building 

products, 107 

prototypes, 97, 112 
Building with Frank Lloyd Wright 
(Jacobs), 96-97 

Built environment, 26-27,46-47, 51, 
55,101,113 

Children, 47, 53-55,63 

autistic, 106 

handicapped, 104-105 

in urban settings, 104 
City Edges grants. See Grants, City 
Edges 

City Options grants. See Grants, 
City Options 

City Scale grants. See Grants, City 
Scale 

Coastal management, 82, 132 
Communication 

for the blind, 107 

graphic, 138-39. See also Signage 

roadway, 40, 16-11 , 110 
Community 

development, 38-39,46-49, 83-87 

participation, 45, 47-49, 55, 56, 

60-63, 71, 86-87, 120-21, 128, 130, 

131,135, 136, 140-41, 145-47 
Comparative Urban Design, Rare 
Engravings, 1830-1843 (Branch), 94 
Conser\ation, 33, 38-39, 44-46, 56, 
84, 139 

of agricultural land, 135 

of courthouses, 45 

of energv, 76-77 

of neighborhoods, 49, 124, 139 

of resources, 76-77, 142 
Conversion, 44-45, 63-65, 68, 70, 71 
Custom House, 130 

Demolition, 34-35, 44-46, 124, 137 
Design, 94, 100-108, 130-31, 138 

architectural, 28-31, 33-35, 53, 

60-61,66,67, 72, 73,98 

environmental, 37, 42, 47, 49, 51, 

56, 73-77, 79-85, 87, 100, 132 

fashion, 64 

graphic, 40, 41, 73-75, 78-79, 

82-83, 138-39 

interior, 40 

participator\-, 55 

Shaker, 34 ' 

street. See Street design 
Development, 126, 137, 138, 140-41. 
See also Community development 
Disney, Walt, 108' 

Ecologv-, 113, 142 
Education, 50-56 

architectural, 50-56, 101 

arts. See Arts education 

community, 37 



design, 40 

elementary, 47, 53-55, 63 

environmental, 46-47, 51, 52, 56, 

136 

urban, 104 

Elderly, 10" 

Energy and Form (Knowles), 102-103 

Engineering, 98 

Environmental 

adaptation, 102-103 
design. See Design, environ- 
mental 

education. See Education, 
environmental 
indicators, 113 
internships, 37, 56 

Fashion design. See Design, fashion 

Fellowships, 50 

Film 

in user analysis, 109 

in urban-scale problems, 108 

Furniture 

for autistic children, 106 

for the mentally retarded, 107 

for streets, 73, 109 

Grants 

Ciry- Edges, 46, 127, 137, 142, 144 
Cit\' Options, 39, 110, 119-21, 123, 
126,129-31, 136, 138-41, 145, 147 
Cit\' Scale, 87 
seed, 37 

Graphic, 38-39 . 

communication. See Communica- 
tion, graphic 
design. See Design, graphic 

Great Camps of the Adirondacks 

(Kaiser), 33 

Gritty Cities (.Matuszeski and Proc- 
ter), 72 

Guide to the Architecture of the United 

States (Smith), 94 

Guidelines 

for building facade restoration, 
122 

for conservation and develop- 
ment, 126 

for hillside development, 137 
for townscape design, 135 

Handbook of Housing Systems for 
Designers and Developers (Cutler and 
Cutler), 112 
Handicapped 

children, 104, 105 

persons, 106 
Historic district, 41,46, 119-21, 123, 
125-27, 131. Seealso Preservation, 
historic 

House moving, 124 
Housing, 96-97, 112, 142. Seealso 
Artists' housing 
Hunt, Richard .Morris, 27, 28 



Internships, See Environmental 
internships 

Journal of Architectural Education 
(Association of Collegiate 
Schools of Architecture, Inc.), 100 

Land 

management, 33, 132 

use, 132-47 
Landscaping, 138 
Learning from Las Vegas (X'enturi, 
Brov\n, and Izenour), 26-21 , 76-77 
Le Corbusier, 26, 27, 97 

.Maillart, Robert, 98 
.Maps, 41, 94, 132-33 
".Measure of Change, .\" (\ ision. 
Inc.), 46 

.Mies van der Rohe, Ludu ig, 28, 97 
Modem Housing Prototypes (Sher- 
wood), 97 
Morgan, Julia, 32 
Murals, 41, 48, 74-75,80-81 
.Museums, 52-53, 63-65, 67, 71 

Nature way, 146 
Natural perservation area, 143 
Neighborhood conservation. See 
Conservation, neighborhood 

On Site (Sky and Stone). See Unbuilt 

America 

One Percent for Art Ordinance, 80, 

81 

Parks, 41, 55, 66, 68, 79-81, 104, 109, 
120-21,123, 127, 140-47 

amusement, 108 

industrial. 138, 144 

theme, 108 
Pedestrian, 41-43, 85, 110, 123, 143 
Pension Building, 64-65 
Performing arts, 61, 69, 87 
Permits, 113 
Plants, 79, 113 
Play 

equipment, 104, 105 

for handicapped, 105 

See also Playground 
Playground, S5, 104, 105 
Prestation, 33-36, 38-39, 47, 72, 
86-87, 118-31 

environmental, 56, 141. 142 

historic, 45, 52, 83, 118, 120, 121, 

123,124, 128,129, 136 

scenic, 132, 137, 139 

Quality of life plan, 80-81, 132-33 

Railroads, 44-45, 71 

Reclamation, 147 

Recreation, 41, 76-77, 140, 145-47 



159 



Rehabilitation, 36, 38-40,62-63, 113, 
120,128, 130 
Renewal, 46, 86-87, 118 
Renovation, 45, 61, 67, 74-75, 123, 
130 

of hui 111 ing facades, 36, 86-87 

of streets. See Revitalization of 

streets 

without displacement, 125 
Restoration, 64-65, 68, 69, 74-75, 
85, 86, 120-22, 125, 145, 146 
Reuse, adaptive. See Adaptive reuse 
Revitalization, 40, 46, 48, 83, 86-87, 
131, 144-45 

of commercial districts, 47, 48, 

80,85,87, 128 

of streets, 36, 38-39, 74-75, 82-83, 

122 

of waterfront, 86, 123 
Robert Maillarfs Bridges: The Art of 
£'«^/«een«^(Billington), 98 

Seed grants. See Cirants, seed 
Signage, 40, 41, 48, 76-77, 82, 85, 
110 
Space, 43 

for autistic children, 106 

conversion, 125 

design and prototypes, 107 

open, 141-47 

play. See Play; Playground 

public, 109 

rural, 132-33 

studio, 62-63,66, 68-70 
Splendid Survivors: San Francisco s 
Downtown Architectural Heritage 
(Corbett), 118 
Street 

design, 36, 38-39, 42, 43, 45, 49, 

74-75, 78-79, 82-83, 85 

furniture. See Furniture, street 

improvement, 36, 38-39, 42, 43, 

45, 74-75, 78-79, 82-83, 85, 120- 

21. See also Revitalization of streets 
Structure in Nature Is a Strategy for 
Design (Pearce), 101 
Student participation, 127 
Subway, 76, 82-83, 139 
Supermannerism: New Attitudes in 
Post-Modet72 Architecture (Smith), 96 
Symmetry: An Appreciation of Its Pres- 
ence in Man's Consciousness (Huff), 103 
Symmetry 

in design, 103 

in nature, 101, 103 

Theaters, 60, 61 

Tourism, 120-21, 123, 144-45 

Traffic, 45, 78-79, 82-83, 109, 130-31 

communication, 110. See also 

Signage 

control, 42-43, 73 

Unbuilt America (Sky and Stone), 29 



Urban 

corridor, 41, 76-77 

design. See Design, urban 

planning, 38-39^46, 49, "3, 83-87 

play. 104 

renewal. See Renewal 

revitalization. See Re\ italization 

wilds, 140-41 

Vacant lots, 124 

X'enturi, Robert, 26-28, 76-77, 96 

Warehouse, 70, 87, 125. See also 

Adaptive reuse 

Wright, Frank Lloyd, 28, 29, 95-97 

Zoning 

citv\43, 70 

environmental quality, 137 
residential, 138 
solar, 102 



160 



Rchnhihi 
120, 12H, . 
Renewal. 4f> 

of buii 

of StrtL.^. -re ■ 

streets 

S5,86, 120-2- 
Reuse, a(' -• 
Revitali/ 
131,144-45 

of COniiiitii i.i; 

80, 85 

of streets, u.. ^n > 

122 

of \\A\ 

if-'l'^f-tAL 

'leering (li 

Seed grants. SeeClnv 
Signage, 40, 41. 4- 

1 1(1 

ioe, 43 

tor autistic chi! 

conversion, 12 ^ 

design and protot) | 

open, 141-47 

play. See Play; PlavgroumI 

puhlic, 109 ' 

M.ril 132-33 

.,62-63,66,68-7(1 



36,38-39,42.4 

^6, 3K-<'' 



in nature, ItU, KM 
rheaters, 60, 61 

communication, 11 
Signage 
control, 42-43. ~ ^ 

Unbuilt 4mi'iu,i ^Slv Hill SroncV ?'^ 
160 



fi^nm^i^' 



'4t:0 



*-, -I 



^W' 



-It^v 



M. 






rm 






I- 






^^yA^^;i 










'fit'^ ** ' 






iWM*^ -'■-''' ■^••■■'^ 



m 



■^i 



^,:j 



i »;. i « }, f ^ ^1 









4. 






:*f f 









"9-^